Department Of Livestock and Wildlife Management
 
 
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Chairperson

Chairperson : Ms Ngwenya
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DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT

REGULATIONS FOR THE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND AGRICULTURE HONOURS LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT HONOURS DEGREE (HLWM)

1. INTRODUCTION

These regulations apply to undergraduate students in the Department of Livestock and Wildlife Management and should be read in conjunction with the General Regulations and the Faculty Regulations, which have precedence over these regulations.

2. AIMS

The Department of Livestock and Wildlife Management seeks to promote the productive and sustainable management of livestock and wildlife resources and in so doing contribute towards sustainable food security, self-reliance and overall well being of the entire Zimbabwean population.

3. OBJECTIVES

The department will seek to achieve its aims through:

3.1 a curriculum and academic culture that provides for sound theoretical and hands-on animal and wildlife management.

3.2 equipping students with competitive and relevant knowledge and work- related skills.

3.3 aggressive research and outreach programmes in the utilisation and management of the livestock, wildlife and natural resources.

3.4 tailor-making the curriculum to enable the graduates to successfully tackle the problems in both rural and commercial sectors.

3.5 preparing the graduates for a diversity of careers.

3.6 creating an awareness and understanding that the holistic or integrated approach to problem solving brings sustainable solutions.

3.7 working closely with other stakeholders in the field of teaching, research and extension in livestock and wildlife management.

4. ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

4.1 Normal Entry

4.1.1 These will normally be as specified in the Faculty Regulations

4.1.2 The department will however give preference to students with `A' level passes in Biology or Agriculture, Chemistry and any of the following:

· Mathematics

· Physics

· Geography

4.2 SPECIAL ENTRY

For special entry, students with outstanding passes in a diploma with a livestock or wildlife bias can be admitted.

4.3 MATURE ENTRY

Refer to Section 3.3 of the General Regulations.

5. CAREER PROSPECTS

Graduates can be employed in the following areas:

- In the private sector - consultants and specialists.

- In government - extension and research officers and consultants.

- In academic institutions lecturers and consultants.

- Self-employment - farmers and consultants.

- Students can also further their studies to follow academic careers

6. GENERAL PROVISIONS

6.1 In level 3, all students will be on Work Related Learning for a minimum period of ten months. During the same period, students will be expected to carry out a research project.

6.2 A student shall be enrolled for at least six modules at any time during the semester, two of which should be core/compulsory.

6.3 Students can include in their programme of study, modules offered by other Departments.

6.4 Students may be allowed to change registration for modules taken in any semester only during the first two weeks of registration.

7. ASSESSMENT

7.1 Dissertation

7.2.1 For the research project assessment, each student will present a dissertation and an oral presentation on the research project.

7.2.2 The dissertation and the oral presentation will contribute 75% and 25%, respectively, to the final mark for the research project.

7.2 For the assessment of modules and Work Related Learning

Refer to Section 5 of the Faculty Regulations.

8. FAILURE TO SATISFY EXAMINERS

Refer to Section 9 of the General Academic Regulations.

9. PROVISION FOR PROGRESSION

Refer to Section 6 of Faculty Regulations.

10. WORK RELATED LEARNING GENERAL GUIDELINES

Refer to Section 8 of the Faculty Regulations.

11. GRADING AND DEGREE CLASSIFICATION

Refer to Section 10 of the Faculty Regulations.

12. DEGREE WEIGHTING

Refer to Section 11 of Faculty Regulations.

13. Programme Structure

All modules are compulsory

Level 1 Semester 1

Code Description Credits
AGED101 Introduction to Agriculture Practice 1 4
AGPR101 Introduction toAgricultural Practice 1 4
HCS115 Introduction to Information Technology 4
CS101 Communication Skills 4
WAP104 Animal Anatomy andHistology 4
WAP110 Principles ofBiochemistry 4
AGRO102 Principles of Genetics 4
LWR111 Principles of Soil Science 4
WAP111 Diversity of Life 4

Level 1 Semester 2

Pre-requisites

Code Description Credits
AGPR102 Agricultural Practice 2 4
WAP103 Principles of Ecology 4
WAP115 Principles of Microbiology 3
WAP118 Growth and Development 3
WAP113 Intermediary Metabolism(WAP110) 3
WAP116/AGRO101 Plant Biology and Plant Physiology 4

Level 2 Semester 1

Code Description Credits
WAP223 Reproduction and Lactation Physiology (WAP112) 3
WAP213 Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation of Nutrients (WAP112) 3
WAP215 Biology of Vertebrates (WAP111) 4
WAP216 Evaluation of Feedstuffs (WAP113) 3
WAP217 Homeostasis 3

GS 201

Introduction to Gender Studies 4
AGRO207 Biometry 4

Level 2 Semester 2

Code Description Credits
WAP206 Animal Health (WAP114, WAP115) 4
WAP214 Principles of Animal Breeding (AGRO102) 3
WAP220 Feeds and Feeding (WAP213, WAP216) 3
WAP219 Grassland Science (WAP103,WAP116, WAP216) 3
WAP222 Applied Ecology (WAP103/HBIO103) 4
AGRO209 Experimental Designs (WAP218/AGRO207) 4
WAP221 Feeding Standards and Ration Formulation 4


Level 3 Semester 1 And 2: Work Related Learning

Code Description Credits
AGPR301

Work Related Learning Report 15

15
AGPR 302 Employer's Assessment Report 10
AGPR 303 Academic Supervisor's Report 15

 

Level 4 Semester 1

Code Description Credits
WAP411

Dairy Production Systems (WAP206,WAP212, WAP214,WAP217, WAP220, WAP221)

3
WAP412 Beef Production Systems (WAP206,WAP212, WAP214,WAP217,WAP220,WAP221) 3
WAP424 Range Animal Management (WAP219, WAP221) 3
WAP414 Applied Animal Breeding (WAP214) 3
WAP415 Applied Aquatic Ecology (WAP222/HBIO210) 4
WAP416 Applied Terrestrial Ecology (WAP222/HBIO210) 4
WAP417 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources (WAP103) 4

Optional Module

Code Description Credits
WAP418

Animal Products Processing (WAP113, WAP115)

3

 

Level 4 Semester 2

Code Description Credits
WAP419

IntensiveWildlife Production Systems (WAP415, WAP416)

4
WAP421 Poultry Production Systems (WAP206, WAP212, WAP214, WAP217WAP220, WAP221) 4
WAP422 Pig Production Systems (WAP206, WAP212, WAP214, WAP217, WAP220, WAP221) 3
WAP423

Small Ruminant Production Systems (WAP206, WAP212, WAP214, WAP217, WAP220, WAP221)

3
WAP427 Sustainable Wildlife Resources Management (WAP415, WAP416) 3
WAP425 The Biology of Vertebrate Faunas of Zimbabwe 4
WAP426 Research Project 8

Optional Module

Code Description Credits
WAP420

Principles In Wildlife Experimentation WAP223, WAP414, WAP415

4

14. Module Synopses

WAP103 Principles of Ecology 4

Definitions and examples of ecological parameters. Hierarchy of organisation (molecular biosphere). Population and community ecology structure and development in relation to environmental factors, interaction, e.g. competition and other biotic factors Agricultural ecosystems, evolution, succession and climax. Stability and productivity of ecosystems. Major ecosystem types of the world.

WAP104 Animal Anatomy and Histology

Definition of terms; Embryology/developmental anatomy, histology, gross anatomy, comparative anatomy, Systematic anatomy. Reference planes and terms. A practical and theoretical exploration of structure in relation to function of organs and systems of the body.

WAP 110 Principles of Biochemistry

The biochemical environment. Bio-molecules: Chemistry of carbohydrates and their functions; lipid chemistry and function, plasma membrane structure; nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleic acid structure with reference the central Dogma of genetic information processing.; protein structure and function illustrated in selected structural types; vitamin structures and functions. Enzymes and coenzymes: biochemical reaction energetics and kinetics, catalysis and the regulation of enzyme activity. Minerals and their functions. Biochemical methods (practicals)

WAP112 Introduction to Neurology and Endocrinology

The vertebrate nervous system:- Structure and function of the CNS, Structure and function of the Peripheral Nervous System; The Autonomic nervous system; The sympathetic nervous system, he parasymphathetic nervous system; The Somatic nervous system. Nerve cell physiology:- Structure of the various types of neurons; Sensory Receptors, Membrane excitation and the generation of action potentials, Propagation of nerve impulses, Synaptic transmission, Effects of drugs and other agents on the synapse. Reflex Action; The simple reflex, Conditioned reflex. Muscle physiology; Structure in relation to function of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle cells, The sliding filament theory and muscle contraction, Control of skeletal muscle contraction. The motor unit; The Neuromuscular junction, Control of cardiac and smooth muscle contraction. Muscle fibre metabolism; Energy metabolism, Metabolic subtypes of striated muscles, Muscle fatigue, Rigor, Adaptation to exercise. Endocrinology:- Hormones as chemical messengers/regulators; Overview of chemical messengers and regulators, Vertebrate endocrine glands and hormones, Chemical and functional classification of hormones, Modes of action & control of hormone action, Feedback systems

WAP114 The Internal Environment and Cell Physiology

The internal environment: composition of the animal body; fluid compartments; the composition, physical and chemical properties of body fluids, component exchanges between the fluid compartments, homeostasis. Functions of blood and blood components. Membrane structure and transport processes, Cell-cell communication.

WAP113 Intermediary Metabolism

Overview of metabolic organisation and regulation. Thermodynamics of biochemical reactions: the laws of thermodynamics, the role of ATP and other phosphagens, the ATP cycle. Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the TCA cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway. Carbohydrate fixation in plants; The light reaction, C3, C4, and CAM. Lipid metabolism: b-oxidation, fatty acid and steroid synthesis. Disorders of lipid metabolism. Amino acid and protein metabolism: amino acid and protein anabolism, amino acid catabolism and the ornithine cycle.

WAP115 Animal Microbiology and Parasitology

Introduction to Microbiology, Mycology, Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology. Classification and identification of micro-organisims.

WAP 118

Growth terms - process of fertilisation, implication and placentation. Growth and differentiation as functions of differential gene action. Post natal growth of bone, sleletal, muscle and adipose tissue. Measurement of growth, growth functions and biometry effects of sex, age, environment, nutrition, compensatory growth, stunting. Manipulation of growth and body composition.

GS201 Introduction to Gender Studies

Refer to the Department Gender Studies.

WAP206 Animal Health

Veterinary methods and techniques in the care and treatment of injured, sick and vulnerable animals. Immunology: types of immunity; origin, development and functions of the leucocytes, the primary and secondary immune responses; theory of vaccination. Antibiotics; types and mechanisms of action. Causes of disease, transmission, host specificity, host response and defence, evasion of immunity, diagnostic methods, disease prevention and control with reference to common viral, bacterial, rickettsial, protozoal, fungal diseases and endo/ecto-parasitism of livestock common in the in the tropical environment. Environmental influences on disease incidence and spread of disease. Statutory regulations and the movement of animals and trade in animal products.

WAP 212 Reproduction and Lactation Physiology

The comparative physiology of reproduction in various vertebrate species. Manipulation of reproductive function in domestic animals. Lactation physiology: mammary gland development, biochemistry of milk synthesis and milk let down. The lactation curve.

WAP213 Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation of Nutrients

Overview of nutritional strategy and anatomical, physiological adaptation to diet in various vertebrates. Comparative physiology of digestion in various species; non-fermentative and fermentative digestion, the role of accessory organs, endocrine and neural control of the digestive system. The central metabolic role of the liver in nutrient processing, distribution and detoxification. Nutrient assimilation into various animal products, the regulation of nutrient partitioning in various metabolic states.

WAP214 Principles of Animal Breeding

Description of various domestic livestock species, breeds, their origin, productive and adaptive characteristics. Review of Mendelian and Population genetics; Causes of change in gene, genotype frequencies: random mating, assortative mating, inbreeding and its effect, mutation, migration, chance or random genetic drift, natural and artificial selection, the importance of changing gene/genotype frequencies in livestock improvement, the concept of and evidence of evolution by natural selection, adaptation and adaptive radiation. Computing Relationships and the inbreeding coefficient, uses of inbreeding. Quantitative genetics: the quantitative traits model, components of phenotypic and genetic variance and their estimation, genotype value, additive genetic or breeding value, dominance genetic value, epistatic genetic value, influence of selection, influence of inbreeding, the selection response, heritability and repeatability, genotype *environment interaction, phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations.

WAP216 Evaluation of Feedstuffs

A nutritional description of the components of feedstuffs. Feed evaluation methods: Chemical analyses; Physical procedures; in vivo, in situ/in sacco, in vitro methods. Evaluation of energy and protein value in ruminants and in monogastrics.

WAP217 Homeostasis

The physiology of the respiratory, cardio-vascular and the urinary systems with emphasis on homeostatic function and the comparative ecological physiology of vertebrate species: - water balance and osmoregulation, thermoregulation; bioenergetics in endotherms ie factors governing heat loss, basal metabolism and mechanisms of heat exchange; adaptation vs acclimatisation to environment.

WAP219 Grassland Science

Forage plants: - Morphology and identification of species, growth physiology and defoliation effects, nutritive attributes and habitat description. Animal foraging behaviour. Grazing management terminology. Herbage quality, productivity and animal performance in tropical grasslands. Veld types; vegetation, productivity, and nutritive value. Basic veld ecology: energy flow, mineral and water cycles, climax communities, successional processes and the concept of range condition. Principles of grazing management: - stocking rates, grazing and rest periods, bush control, top hamper removal, use of fire, advantages and disadvantages of different grazing management systems. Grass and legume forage/pasture species:- establishment, management, productive and nutritive attributes, harvesting, conservation and utilisation of forages. Grassland research methods: - measurement of forage availability, yield estimation, estimates of voluntary intake.

WAP220 Feeds and Feeding

Overview of tropical feed resources in relation to animal production. Description of nutritive value and utilisation of feedstuffs including a comprehensive analysis of anti-nutritive factors; Classification into cereal grains and processing by-products, protein rich grains and oilseed cakes, animal by-products, grasslands and other forages, conserved (and conservation of) forages, miscellaneous feedstuffs. Feed processing; reactivity of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and vitamins under normal conditions of treatment and storage, chemical/biological/hydro-thermo-mechanical processing of various feedstuffs, quality control in stock-feed manufacturing.

WAP 221 Feeding Standards and Ration Formulation

The regulation and prediction of voluntary feed intake in domestic animals. A historical review of the various energy and protein systems, with emphasis on the experimental bases and validity. Description of energy and protein utilisation and consequences of deficiency in various productive states, micor-nutrient metabplism, function deficiency and possible toxicity. Methods in evaluation of protein, energy and micro-nutrient requirement: description and feeding standards and typical rations for various species and productive states, the use of nutrient requirement and feed composition tables in ration formulation.

WAP 222 Applied Ecology

Population ecology, including: experimental and logistic models of population growth, life tables, life history strategies, community ecology, patterns in multispecies communities, stability and complexity, linear and non-linear succession models, phenology. World biomass and productivity, utilisation by man. Effects of utilisation.

WAP 223 Reproduction and Lactation Physiology

The comperative physiology of reproduction in various vetebrate species. Manipulation of reproductive function in domestic animals lactation. Physiology: mammary gland development, biochemistry of milk synthesis and milk let down. The lactation curve.

WAP411 Dairy Production Systems

The Dairy Industry in Zimbabwe. Properties of milk, milk marketing and the quality premium scheme. Methods of processing of milk and the manufacture of dairy products. Starting a dairy enterprise:- Choice of breed, land, agro-ecology and feed flow, machinery and buildings, legislative and market requirements. Milking parlours and other handling facilities. Hand and Machine Milking. Clean milk production. Reproduction, breeding, nutrition, health, and routine management tools and practices. Calf and heifer rearing. Economics of milk production. Practical interaction in dairy enterprises.

WAP412 Beef Production Systems

The beef industry in Zimbabwe. Beef breeds and their characterization. Principles of beef production:- Handling facilities, routine management tools and practices, health, reproduction, breeding, nutrition and grazing management. The beef management calendar. Beef herd dynamics, factors guiding choice of production policy. Beef Production systems. Pen and off-veld finishing systems. Transport and marketing of cattle. Meat quality, carcass grading and the economics of beef production. Practical interaction in beef enterprises.

WAP427 Sustainable Wildlife Resources Management

Wildlife Values. Consumptive and non-consumptive exploitation of wildlife. Ecological and zoological principles in game park management with emphasis on environmental protection, assessment of animal impact, impact of ecotourism, harvest intensity and conservation of biodiversity in wildlife species. Case studies on environmental degradation and rehabilitation strategies, on endangered species and strategies of restoration. An analysis of national and international statutory instruments guiding the sustainable utilisation of wildlife resources. Studies on the impact of sustainable use initiatives in Zimbabwe and the Southern African region; Campfire, Intensive Protection Zones, The Conservancy Concept and Cattle-wildlife integrated or multi-use systems, Trans-frontier Parks.

WAP414 Applied Animal Breeding

Livestock improvement strategies: Selection; Performance testing- progeny tests, collateral relatives, contemporary comparison, pedigree selection, comparative genetic progression, factors affecting genetic progress through selection. Mating systems: random mating, positive and negative assortative mating. Breeding Systems: crossbreeding. Inbreeding, line breeding. Principles and practice in nucleus breeding schemes;.records and data processing, computer applications in animal breeding. Biotechnology and animal improvement: Syncronisation of oestrus, AI, MOET, sperm sexing, embryo sexing, Blood typing and DNA mapping, Cryopreservation, cloning, transgenic animals. Practical interaction in livestock improvement units/schemes.

WAP417 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Reductionism and Holistic approaches to resource management. Bio-diversity, ecosystem stability, ecology, and conservation. Biological monitoring and control of the ecosystem processes. Land and property rights. Common property resource management. Institutional analysis and natural resources management. Entitlements and well-being of communities. Sustainability; principles and practices. Ecosystems and the carrying capacity concept; Boseruption and Malthusian theories. Environment impact assessment.

WAP 415 Appied Aquatic Ecology

Introduction to limnology, hydrological cycle and nature or aquatic environments physical and chemical properties of water in streams and lakes. Nature and function of communities, benthos, plankton, epiphytes, macrophytes and fish, invasive drainange and siltation, fishing and exploitation. Effect of men on systems pollution euphophication, exploitation.

WAP 416 Applied Terrestial Ecology

Adaptive management of wildlife. The influence of body size of large mammal ecology. Forging Theory. Optimal Forging: population regulation, survival and extinction of species, conservation strategies,case studies, determinants of community structure, large mammal biomass, density, carrying capacity and culling, census method, wildlife utilisation.

WAP418 Animal Products Processing

Food borne diseases, with reference to handling of meat, eggs, milk and milk products, fish, and water. Water quality and processing. Milk; handling, quality, processing:- pasteurization, sterilisation, microbiology of sour milk production, yoghurt and cheese making, skimmed milk and butter making. Meat science; processing physiology, composition and other qualitative factors. Hides; quality, pre-treatment, tanning. Wool, mohair, cashmere, feathers; quality and processing products. Other minor animal products.

WAP419 Intensive Wildlife Production Systems

Intensive apiculture; the biology of bees, apiculture equipment, harvesting, processing, yield, by-products and marketing. Ostrich farming; handling facilities, nutrition, disease, reproduction, egg collection and hatchery management, ostrich products and marketing. Fish farming; the biology of fish in the pond, large fresh water bodies, and controlled environments, transport of live fish. Pond management; construction, fertilisation, weed control, stocking and predator control. Fish harvesting; growth cycles, netting. Principle and practice of fish production in artificially controlled environment systems. Principle and practice in integrated beef-wildlife systems.

WAP420 Principles and Methods in Wildlife Experimentation Wildlife Studies

Design and analysis of wildlife experiments: ecological data type, collection and recording techniques, scales of measurement, measurement of abundance; mark and recapture techniques, quadrat counts, line transects, distance and removal methods of remote sensing. Community parameters; species diversity measures, niche overlap, diet analysis, survival rates. Sample size determination, sampling methods

WAP421 Poultry Production Systems

Biology of the Chicken; Breeds & their origin, Reproductive Physiology, Respiratory Physiology. Poultry production systems. Principles of poultry production in Broiler, Layer, Breeder stock management; Routine management practices, tools and equipment, Housing and environmental management, Factors affecting, and the management for reproductive efficiency in layers and breeder stock, Applied Breeding, Applied Nutrition, Poultry Health. Practical interaction in meat, egg, and breeding enterprises.

WAP422 Pig Production systems

Characterization of pig breeds. Pig production systems, and production options. Reproduction, health, breeding and nutritional management. Handling facilities, routine management tools and practices. Carcass quality, grading and marketing. Economics of pig pproduction. Practical interaction in pig production enterprises.

WAP423 Small Ruminant Production Systems

Characterisation of small ruminant breeds. Contribution to livestock industry. Reproduction, breeding, nutrition management. Handling facilities and routine management tools and activities. Production systems. Constraints and opportunities.Review of small ruminant research in Zimbabwe. Grading and processing of small ruminant products. Economics of small stock production. Practical interaction in production enterprises.

WAP424 Range Animal Management

A description of the critical factors in range and animal management objectives:- Beef herd dynamics, herd composition, separation of herds, productivity in terms of growth rate or milk production etc, reproductive performance, target market age and weight, the cost of supplementary feeding. Veld management planning:- application of principles of land use planning in general, stereo interpretation, carrying capacity and condition assessment, livestock planning, fencing layout, allocation of paddocks, planning the rotational grazing regimes. Economic and ecological comparison of single versus multi-use options. The role of browsable tree species. Poisonous plant species and other anti-herbivory attributes of range plants. Drought mitigation strategies. Planning of communal area grazing systems:- The grazing schemes concept versus alternative grazing management. Veld reinforcement. Veld rehabilitation.

WAP426 Dissertation

Independent scientific studies on or in a subject related to animals or poultry, domestic or wild.

REGULATIONS FOR THE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND AGRICULTURE (GENERAL) DEGREE PROGRAMME

1. PREAMBLE

These regulations shall be read in conjunction with the Faculty Regulations. and the General Regulations The regulations apply to undergraduate students and the programme shall run on a block release basis.

2. AIM AND OBJECTIVES

2.1 AIM

The programme aims to promote environmentally and economically sustainable management of natural resources and agriculture and contribute towards sustainable food security, self-reliance and well being of the entire Zimbabwean population.

2.2 OBJECTIVES

The programme will seek to achieve its mission through:

2.2.1 A curriculum and academic culture that provide for sound hands-on skills in agricultural and natural resources management;

2.2.2 Aggressive research and outreach programmes in the management of natural resources and agricultural enterprises;

2.2.3 Tailor-making the curriculum to enable the graduates to successfully tackle the challenges in all natural resources management and agricultural sectors; and,

2.2.4 Working closely with other stakeholders in the field of teaching, research and extension in agricultural and natural resources management and development.

3. ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

In addition to satisfying the minimum conditions prescribed under the General Regulations, a candidate must have:

3.1 A good pass in a recognized agricultural or natural resources management diploma

3.2 Preference will however be given to candidates with "O" Level passes in English, Mathematics, Biology or Agriculture, Physical Science and Geography.

3.3 An "A" Level pass in Biology or Agriculture will be an added Advantage

4. CAREER PROSPECTS

The programme is meant to cater for holders of recognised diplomas in Agriculture who are also in full time employment. On successfully completing the degree programme, graduates could be employed in the areas of Agronomy, Horticulture, livestock production as well as:

In the private sector as consultants and specialists

In government as extension and research officers and consultants

In academic institutions as lecturers and consultants

Self-employment as farmers and consultants

Students can also further their studies to follow academic careers

5. GENERAL PROVISIONS

5.1 This is a three-year block release programme.

5.2 In each semester, a candidate must register for six modules that carry at least 24 credits including all core modules

5.3 The Work Related Learning will run concurrently with Level Two.

5.4 The Work-Related Learning modules will carry a total of forty credits.

6. ASSESSMENT

Refer to Section 6 of the General Regulations.

7. FAILURE TO SATISFY EXAMINERS

Refer to Section 9 of the General Regulations

8. PROVISIONS FOR PROGRESSION

Refer to Section 6 of the Faculty Regulations.

9. WORK RELATED LEARNING GENERAL GUIDELINES

Refer to Section 8 of the Faculty Regulations.

10. GRADING AND DEGREE CLASSIFICATION

Refer to Section 10 of the Faculty Regulations.

11. DEGREE WEIGHTING

For purposes of degree weighting the results of levels 1, 2 and 3, the weighting shall be as follows:

Level 1 25%

Level 2 30%

Level 3 45%

12. PROGRAMME STRUCTURE

Level 1 Semester 1

Code Description Credits
NRM101 Principles of Animal Science 4
NRM102

Plant Biology andPhysiology

4
NRM103 Principles of Genetics 4
NRM104 Principles of Agricultural Economics 4
NRM105 Principles of soil science 4
NRM106 Agricultural Biochemistry 4
HCS115 Introduction to Information Technology 4
CS101 Communication Skills 4
     

 

Level 1 Semester 2

Code Description Credits
NRM108

Principles of Ecology

4
NRM110

Principles of Microbiology

4
NRM111

Introduction to Entomology and Nematology

4
NRM112

Soil fertility Mangement

4
NRM113 Biometry 4

Optional Modules

Code Description Credits
NRM114

Nutritional Biochemistry

4
NRM115

Principles of Hydrology 4

4

Level 2 Semester 1

Code Description Credits
NRM201

Grassland Science (NRM102) 4

4
NRM202

Principles of Sustainable Crop Production 1 (NRM102)

4
NRM203 Biology of Plant Pathogens (NRM203 & NRM204) 4
NRM204 Principles of Horticulture (NRM102) 4
NRM205

Soil and Water Conservation

4

Optional Modules

Code Description Credits
NRM206

Livestock Improvemnet (NRM103)

4
NRM207

Soil and Water Management Research (NRM112) 4

4
NRM208 Ecology and Physiology of Edible Mushroom (NRM203 & 204) 4 4
NRM209 Crop Ecology and Physiology (NRM102 ) 4
NRM220 Plant Breeding and Conservation (NRM103) 4
GS 201 Introduction to Gender Studies 4

Level 2 Semester 2

Code Description Credits
NRM210

Farm Business Management (NRM104)

4
NRM211

Principles of Wildlife Management (NRM101 & NRM301)

4
NRM212 Principles of sustainable crop production (NRM109) 4
NRM213 Principles of Irrigation (NRM112 & NRM102 ) 4
NRM219 Research Methods (NRM113) 4

Optional Modules

Code Description Credits
NRM214

Animal and Poultry Nutrition (NRM114)

4
NRM215

Animal Health (NRM109)

4
NRM216 Fruit and Nut Production (NRM203) 4
AGRO210 Simulation Modeling 4
GES223 Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing Water Quality 4
NRM221 Water quality 4
NRM217 Farm Mechanisation 4
NRM218 Weed Biology, Ecology and Management (NRM102) 4

Level 3 Semester 1

Code Description Credits
NRM301

Tropical Animal Production (NRM101 & NRM201)

4
NRM302

Economics of Environmental Management (NRM 104)

4
NRM303 Olericulture (NRM203) 4
NRM304 Agricultural Extension 4
NRM305 Resource Survey Methodology 4

Optional Modules

Code Description Credits
NRM306

Food and Cash Crop Production (NRM202 & NRM212)

4
NRM307

Intensive Wildlife Production (NRM211)

4
NRM308 Ruminant Production Systems (NRM101 & NRM201) 4
NRM310 Plant Propagation and NurseryManagement (NRM102) 4
NRM323 Organic Horticulture (NRM203 & NRM204) 4
NRM311

GIS Application inland Management

4
NRM 325 Biology of Plant insect pests 4

Level 3 Semester 2

Code Description Credits
NRM322

Plant pathogens & Insect Pest Management (NRM203)

4
NRM313

Sustainable Management of Natural Resources (NRM204)

4
NRM314 Agricultural and Food Marketing (NRM104 & NRM210) 4
NRM315 Project Planning and Management 4
NRM316 Dissertation 4

Optional Modules

Code Description Credits
NRM312

Post Harvest Technology (NRM203, NRM204, NRM403)

4
NRM317

Ornamental Horticulture (NRM303 & NRM304)

4
NRM318 Plant Biotechnology (NRM210) 4
NRM319 Animal Products Processing (NRM203 & NRM301) 4
NRM320 Wildlife Resource Management ( NRM211 &NRM307) 4
NRM321 Monogastric Production System ( NRM101) 4
NRM324 Applied Watershed Management 4
NRM325 Biology of Plant Insect Pests 4

 

13. MODULE SYNOPSES

NRM101 PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL SCIENCE

Definition of terms. Structure of the somatic cell. The anatomy and physiology of systems of the body; a comparative approach. Basic comparative embryology. Homeostasis and environmental physiology.

NRM103 PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS

Course objectives: The course is designed to develop a base for those who will pursue breeding courses. It covers basic genetic principles.

Course content: Cellular division and chromosomes; Mendelian principles of inheritance; Gene interactions; Sex determination and sex linkage; Linkage and recombination; Nucleic acids, genetic code and protein synthesis; Gene and chromosomal mutations; Maternal effects and cytoplasmic heredity; Introduction to population genetics; Introduction to quantitative inheritance.

NRM104 PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Economics of agricultural production-theoretical foundations; Physical and economic relations, The factor- product relationship, the factor-factor relationship, the product- product relationship. The product supply and input demand; Product supply, Demand for inputs. Production Economics; Efficiency of resource use, Technical, Allocative and Economic efficiency, Risk and uncertainly. Economics of market demand; Basic demand relationships, Elasticity of demand, Homogeneity condition. Developments in demand theory; New theories of demand, Equilibrium and exchange, Definition of equilibrium, Partial vs. general equilibrium, Interference with equilibrium. Theory of the

agricultural household; the z-goods model of the agricultural house. Analysis of agricultural markets. Competitive markets and Pareto optimality, Policy intervention in markets. Economics of trade; Theory of comparative advantage, measuring terms of trade. Food and agricultural policy. Macroeconomics and microeconomics. National Income, Excess Demand and Spare capacity. Consumption function. Government expenditure. Exports and imports Investment. Money. Theories of Money and Monetary Policy. Inflation.

NRM105 PRINCIPLES OF SOIL SCIENCE

Soil formation, soil minerals, soil classification, Soil texture and structure in relation to tillage, Soil colour, Other physical properties of soil e.g. drainage, permeability, infiltration, Land capability classification, Soil profiling, Soil sampling.

NRM106 AGRICULTURAL BIOCHEMISTRY

The biochemical environment. Chemistry and functions of biomolecules: carbohydrates, liquids, nucleic acids, vitamins and coenzymes, proteins, minerals. Enzymes: catalysis, reaction kinetics, regulation of enzymes activity. The plasma membrane, structure, transport. Intermediary metabolism: Bioenergetics; principles of thermodynamics, the ATP cycle; general description of metabolic organization and of central metabolic pathways, regulation of metabolism.

NRM108 PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY

Definition and examples of ecological parameters, Hierarchy of organization (molecular biosphere). Population and community ecology structure and development in relation to environmental factors, interaction, e.g. competition and other biotic factors. Agricultural ecosystems, evolution, succession and climax. Stability and productivity of ecosystems. Major ecosystem types of the world.

NRM110 PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGY

The biology and classification of microorganisms of importance in livestock production and product processing. Pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms Parasitology; the biology and classification of common endo and ecto parasites of livestock, lifecycles, identification (adult and immature stages), treatment, control and prevention.

NRM112 SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT

Plant nutrition, fertilizers and soil fertility management, Liming Requirement, salt affected Soils and their Reclamation, Soil Organic Matter. Soils and Environmental Pollution. Water Resources and Irrigation.

NRM113 BIOMETRY

Module objectives: acquisition of skills to enable students to understand and interpret data that is presented ordinarily and in scientific research. To have ability to use statistical analytical tools and tests to validate conclusions of scientific research.

Course content: Introduction to statistics, definition of population, sample variation and sampling techniques; Descriptive statistics, probability distributions and hypothesis testing; Analysis of categorical data; Basic experimental design-completely randomized design and randomized complete block design; Mean separation techniques and regression analysis. Survey design, statement of the problem, sampling design, methods of measurement, data collection, data management and analysis and report writing.

NRM114 NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY

Chemical and nutritional description of nutritive components of feedstuffs. Anti-nutrional factors. Comparative study of nutritional strategy and digestive physiology; Methods of feed evaluation: chemical methods, in vitro-in sacco techniques, digestion and metabolism experiments. Measures of protein and energy value in ruminants and monogastrics.

NRM115 PRINCIPLES OF HYDROLOGY

The hydrological cycle; meteorological parameters, their definitions and measurements rainfall-intensity/duration/frequency relationships; evaporation; infiltration; groundwater; surface runoff-processes rainfall/runoff correlations; hydrograph analysis; flood routing surface runoff processes, rainfall/runoff correlations; hydrograph analysis food routing.

GS201 INTRODUCTION TO GENDER STUDIES

The module empowers the students with knowledge and skills that enable them to be gender sensitive in the university, workplace and in all their social interactions. Topics covered include, Understanding Gender, Theories of Gender Inequalities, Historical Development of Gender, Gender Analysis, and Gender Issues in Zimbabwe, Redressing Gender Imbalances, Empowerment and Strategies for creating a gender responsive environment. Every student has to pass the module in order to graduate.

NRM201 GRASSLAND SCIENCE

Forage plants:- Morphology and identification of species, growth physiology and defoliation effects, nutritive attributes and habitat description. Animal foraging behaviour. Grazing management terminology. Herbage quality, productivity and animal performance in tropical grasslands. Veld types; vegetation, productivity, and nutritive value. Basic veld ecology: energy flow, mineral and water cycles, climax communities, success ional processes and the concept of range condition. Principles of grazing management. Grass and legume forage/pasture species:- establishment, management, productive and nutritive attributes, harvesting, conservation and utilisation of forages.

NRM202 PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE CROP PRODUCTION I

Module objectives: Principles of sustainable crop production modules are intended to provide a broad understanding of crop plants and their interaction with their environment at the plant crop and cropping systems level. Students will also be equipped with basic knowledge and skills of producing a crop. Application/reference will be made to cropping practices in Zimbabwe and the arid and semi-arid tropics in general.

Course content: Definition and scope of crop production; Origin, Domestication and Classification of crop plants; Factors that affect crop production; plant nutrition and biological nitrogen fixation; crop water requirements, Water use efficiency, effects of moisture stress and water logging on crop growth and yield; Zimbabwe's climate and Agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe; Crop production techniques and practices; cropping systems and patterns.

NRM205 SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

Overview of the soil erosion problem, Strategies for soil erosion control, Agronomic practices, types of drains; design of drains; layouts of drains, Ground water Drainage, types of drains; design of drains; layouts, wind erosion control measures benefits/cost analysis of conservation projects, water conservation practices.

NRM207 SOIL AND WATER MANAGEMENT

Soil Erosion Research Laboratory experiments, field trials, and models. Water Management Research, Rainfall Studies, Runoff Measurements, Sedimentation, and Sampling techniques, Data Analysis.

NRM211 PRINCIPLES OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT

Zoogeography and description of important wildlife species in Southern Africa. Values of wildlife resources. Wildlife biology: reproduction; fecundity, natality, recruitment, biotic potential, sex relations, density dependent mortality, starvation and malnutrition, predation, and disease; nutrition, nutritional strategy, feeding habits and preference, water, requirements. Wildlife behaviour and environmental physiology.

NRM214 ANIMAL AND POULTRY NUTRION

Feeding standards Tropical feed resources and animal productivity. Production, harvesting and conservation of harvested forages. Feed processing and quality control during manufacturing. The physiology dietary choice and the refulation of intake. Evaluation of nutrient requirement: feeding systems for energy and protein, techniques in ration formulation Management for optimum nutritional efficiency in various enterprises.

NRM215 ANIMAL HEALTH

Principles of animal health: immunology; types of immunity; origin, development and functions of the leucocytes, the primary and secondary immune responses; theory of vaccination microbiology, causes of disease, transmission, diagnostic methods, disease prevention and control; antibiotic types and mechanisms of action. Parasitology; biology of vectors and parasites of livestock; identification, life cycle, host specificity, host response, evasion of immunity and control strategies. Practical experience in the care and treatment of injured, sick and vulnerable animals. Statutory regulations in animal and wildlife production.

NRM206 LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT

Breeds of domestic livestock; origin, description. Genetic and statistical concepts. Methods and aids in genetic improvement; dairy, beef, small ruminants, pigs and poultry.

NRM209 CROP ECOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Plant Biology and Physiology is a pre-requisite for this course; Course Outline: Growth Analysis: Germination and growth, Crop growth rate, Absolute growth rate, relative growth rate, crop growth rate, NAR, LAR, and LAI Photosynthesis and Respiration; C3, C4 and CAM. Photorespiration, growth respiration, and maintenance respiration; Canopy Architecture and light interception Canopy system, PAR, crop ideotypes; Water and crop growth, Classification according to water requirements, water use efficiency, water stress, physiological effects on plants, adaptation to dry conditions.

Temperature and crop growth, Temperature and development, day degrees, phydiological adaptation. Partitioning of Assimilates, Population effects, sink-source relationships. Nutrient temperature, drought and plant population effects on dry matter accumulation.

NRM210 AGRICULTURE AND FOOD MARKETING

In addition to exploring marketing principles, this module also addresses unique marketing concepts related to Agricultural and Food Marketing. Definition of marketing, key roles of marketing in Agriculture; Price discovery; the food price dilemma, market structures; Structure, Conduct, Performance Model.

Marketing principles, Consumer behavior, Marketing Concept, Marketing Mix. Agricultural marketing management; Market margin analysis; Economic performance conceptual framework in agricultural marketing; Agricultural marketing information services; Agricultural marketing extension, A market oriented approach to Post harvest Management; Agricultural Markets liberalization in Zimbabwe (Market Reforms) and Globalization. Strategic market planning and management; Marketing plans; Linking Production with Marketing (Contracting); Marketing research.

NRM212 PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE CROP PRODUCTION II

Module Objectives: Principles of sustainable crop production modules are intended to provide a broad understanding of crop plants and their interaction with their environment at the plant, crop and cropping systems level. Students will also be equipped with basic knowledge and skills of producing a crop. Application/reference will be made to cropping practices in Zimbabwe and the arid and semi-arid tropics in general.

Course Content: Crop Yield (Definition of yield, The yield function, Processes essential for yield attainment, Cultural practices that enhance crop growth and yield, Potential yield versus actual yield; tillage; importance of plant breeding in crop production, Principles of Seed Production; Grain storage; Agriculture and environment pollution.

NRM213 PRINCIPLES OF IRRIGATION

Role and history of irrigation development in Zimbabwe. Background of irrigation development in Zimbabwe, irrigation Agronomy and crop Water Requirements. Planning irrigation projects. Land leveling for irrigation Land smoothing, least squares method water flow in pipes and basic principles of hydraulics. Sprinkle irrigation systems and components. Surface irrigation systems and components.

NRM217 FARM MECHANISATION

Animal Power types and potential. Tractor Power Engine components, models, horsepower, linkages. Farm implements Land clearing and preparation, weeding, spraying, harvesting, processing, drying and storage, transport. Workshops Management.

NRM218 WEED BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

Module Objectives: this is a module on weed science and weed management. The module is designed to meet specific objectives, which are: to give a sound Weed Biology and Weed Ecology knowledge to enable students to have a good understanding of the Principles of Weed Management; to equip students with sufficient knowledge for them to comfortably develop Weed Management Programmes (WMP); to promote the concept of Integrated Weed Management (IWM)

Module Content: the weed science component of this module places emphasis on weed biology and weed ecology. Individual topic covered in this component of the module include: Definition of keys words and terms; weed characteristics and classification; Weed identification; Weed reproduction; Weed-crop interaction; competition and allelopathy, Biology and ecology of problem weeds in Zimbabwe; Parasitic weeds of the tropics; Poisonous plants of Zimbabwe

The weed management component of this module includes: definition of key words and terms, methods of weed management: Machinery and equipment used in weed management; weed management of specific crops; Management of specific problem weeds; developing a weed management programme (WMP) integrated methods of weed management (IWM)

NRM219 RESEARCH METHODS

Module objectives:- to develop scientific skills in research, develop project objectives and design a research project , implement and monitor, and data collection procedures, apply the steps involved in a research process, finally project write-up and effective communication of scientific information. Research ethics and professionalism are incorporated into the teaching of research methods.

Module content: Definition of research and research methodology, research ethics, principles of designing of experiments, randomization, replication and blocking, requirements of a good comparative experiment, simple designs, completely randomized design, randomized complete block design, split-plot design, nested designs and cross-over designs. Factorial experiments, interaction interpretation, missing observations. analysis assumptions and transformations Analysis of covariance, regression analysis, trend analysis. Introduction to survey methodology, sampling methods, questionnaire design. Data analysis and interpretation, introduction to statistical software. Scientific report writing and reporting.

NRM220 PLANT BREEDING AND CONSERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

Module objectives: the module is designed to cover the basic principles in plant breeding and the methods used in the breeding of both self and cross-pollinated crops. Module content: The module covers Nature and goals of plant breeding, patterns of evolution in cultivated plants, plant introductions and domestication, reproductive systems and pollination control in crop plants, selection under cross and self-fertilization, genetic consequences of hybridization and an introduction to the theory of selection, plant breeding methods in self and cross-pollinated crops, conservation of plant genetic resources (in-situ and ex-situ conservation)

NRM 221 WATER QUALITY

NRM301 TROPICAL ANIMAL PRODUCTION

Description of the animal production industry in the tropics; animal, productivity and trends in comparison with other regions of the word. Opportunities and constraints in tropical livestock production; genetics, nutrition, health and environmental management. Breed of domestic livestock; origin and description Major diseases of domestic livestock and control strategies. Theory and practical experience in the management of beef, dairy, small ruminant, pig and poultry units with emphasis on production cycles; herd/flock dynamics, influence of level of management, season, and market forces, farm buildings, handling facilities machinery and equipment for livestock farmers. Livestock production systems; objectives, land, capital, variable costs and environmental constraints. Integrated farming systems.

NRM302 ECONOMICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Environment and the micro-economy; Markets, Market failure and property rights, Government property rights, Economic instruments for environmental management, Attaching money values to environmental goods. Environment and the macro-economy; the green economy, Macro economic policy and the environment, Environment and the international economy, Environmental regulation, comparative advantage and international competitiveness, trans boundary externalities and environmental policy, trade liberalization and environmental impacts, Economics of pollution control, theory of pollution economics, the practical use of economic instruments in pollution control, Natural resource economics Management of renewal resources, market and institutional failure in the natural resource sector.

NRM304 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

BACKGROUND: history of agricultural extension in Zimbabwe What is extension?

Extension ethics communication skills: Mass media: kinescis: art of listening. Conducting successful meetings. EXTENSION METHODS AND TRAINING PROGRAMME PLANNING: projects, Programmes, and Policy in Agricultural Extension Interpretation of Agricultural policy and planning programmes.Farmer participation in extension programme planning, monitoring and evaluation. Research Extension Linkages. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT what is change management. Donor Organizations in agricultural development and extension. Privatization of extension services is this an option for the future? Female Extension Agents and Gender in Agricultural development and extension Agrarian reform challenges for extension.

NRM305 RESOURCES SURVEY METHODOLGY

Physical components of land, remote sensing and interpretation of veld, soil, water and topography land capability classification.

NRM307 INTENSIVE WILDLIFE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

Intensive Apiculture; the biology of bees, apiculture equipment, yield, harvesting processing and marketing of honey and its byproducts. Fish farming, the biology and management of fish in pond, large fresh water bodies, and in controlled environments. Fish harvesting; growth and reproductive cycles, netting. Processing of fish. Ostrich farming; handling facilities, nutrition, disease, reproduction, egg collection and hatchery management, ostrich products and marketing. Principle and practice in integrated beef-wildlife systems

NRM308 RUMINANT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

The Dairy industry in Zimbabwe Properties of mild, milk marketing and the quality premium scheme. Methods of processing of milk and the manufacture of dairy products. Starting a dairy enterprise:-Choice of breed, land, agro-ecology and feed flow, machinery and buildings, legislative and market requirements. Milking parlours and other handling facilities. Hand and machine Milking. Clean milk production. Reproduction, breeding, nutrition, health, and routine management tools and practices.

Calf and heifer rearing. Economics of milk production. Practical interaction in dairy enterprises.

The beef industry in Zimbabwe. Beef breeds and their characterization. Principles of beef production:-handling facilities, routine management tools and practices, health, reproduction, breeding, nutrition and grazing management. The beef management calendar. Beef herd dynamics, factors guiding choice of production policy. Beef production systems. Pen and off-veld finishing systems. Transport and marketing of cattle. Meat quality, carcass grading and the economics of beef production. Practical interaction in beef enterprises.

Characterization of small ruminant breeds. Contribution to livestock industry. Reproduction, breeding, nutrition management. Handling facilities and routine management tools and activities. Production systems. Constraints and opportunities. Review of small ruminant research in Zimbabwe. Grading and processing of small ruminant products. Economics of small stock production. Practical interaction in production enterprises.

NRM310 FOOD AND CASH PRODUCTION

Module objective: the module is designed to provide students with knowledge in the economic importance, production, marketing and research developments in the major cash, food and industrial crops grown in Zimbabwe. Students will be expected to use the knowledge they obtained in Principles of Sustainable crop production to produce specific crops as required by the Zimbabwean context. Module Content: Students are expected to know detailed agronomic practices of the following crops: Cotton, tobacco, paprika, sugarcane, soyabean, sunflower, coffee and tea. Maize, wheat, groundnuts, sorghum, pearl and finger millet, Irish and sweet potato, cassava, field beans, cowpeas and bambara nuts

NRM311 GIS APPLICATION IN LAND MANAGEMENT

Factors to consider in implementing a GIS benefits derived from GIS, Operational application of GIS, inhibitors to GIS

NRM313 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Reductionism and Holistic approaches to resource management. Bio-diversity, ecosystem stability, ecology, and conservation. Biological monitoring and control of

the ecosystem processes. Land and property rights. Common property resource management. Institutional analysis and natural resources management. Entitlement and well-being of communities. Sustainability; principles and practices. Ecosystems and the carrying capacity concept; Boseruption and Malthusian theories. Environment impact assessment.

NRM314 FARM BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

BACKGROUND:-Functions of management-Forms of business organization in commercial agriculture. Farm records and Information systems management.

-Labour management FARM PLANNING AND BUDGETING:-Gross Margin Analysis. Whole farm budget and farm planning. Partial budget. Break-even budget. Cash flow budget.

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT. Sources of agricultural finance. Agricultural Support Schemes with special reference to. Government support scheme-. Contract Production schemes Management of working capital. Investment appraisal-Stock valuations and depreciation Farm trading accounts-Profit and loss account, Farm balance sheet, its analysis and interpretation FARM MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTS Variances analysis-Audit of farm operation and budgetary control. BUSINESS ETHICS.

NRM315 PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

Project Planning and feasibility Studies, Project cycle, Project Appraisal techniques, Feasibility Studies, Climate, soils, water, lab our, cropping patterns, irrigation systems.

NRM316 DISSERTATION

Independent studies in a crop, animal, poultry, wildlife or land and water subject area. Students will produce a dissertation

NRM318 ANIMALPRODUCTS PROCESSING

Biology of important microorganisms in animal product processing and preservation. Laboratory techniques; the aseptic technique, microbial culture. Food borne diseases and quality control, with reference to the handling, processing and storage of mea, eggs, milk and milk products, fish water. Processing versus quality of meat and milk/milk products, hides, wool, mohair cashmere and other animal products. Hygiene in animal houses and product processing units; ventilation, sterilization, disinfection, fumigation, staff control. Statutory regulation on product and animal houses.

NRM321 MONOGASTRIC PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

Biology of domestic poultry species of economic importance. Description of broiler and layer breeds. Poultry production systems. Principles of poultry production:-routine management tools and practices, health, reproduction, breeding, nutrition. Principles and practice in the production of table, hatching eggs, day old chicks and point of lay pullets. Poultry equipment, housing, and environmental (temperature, humidity, lighting regimes) management.

Economics of poultry production. Practical interaction in meat, egg, ad breeding enterprises. Economics of poultry production. Practical interaction in meat, egg, and breeding enterprises. Characterisation of pig breeds. Pig production systems, and production options. Reproduction, health, breeding and nutritional management. Handling facilities, routine management tools and practices. Carcass quality, grading and marketing. Economics of pig production. Practical interaction in pig production enterprises.

NRM324 APPLIED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

Management issues in the water sector the global concept context, a multi-disciplinary approach to water resource management. Competing users of the water resource. Water sector policy policy alternative supply augmentation technologies, water sector financing and management policy. Appropriate pricing for water delivery services. Selected case studies. Salinity problem, Alluvial mining, under ground mining, Riverbed sand abstraction, industrial dumps, drainage structures for rehabilitation and protection, revegetation, policy framework.



 
 
 
 
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