1.The tragedy of German Jesuits working in Chinhoyi Diocese during Zimbabwe's war of Liberation
Department of Historical Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
The Catholic Church emerged out of the liberation war in 1980 as battered, numbed and depleted by the deportation of several of its rural clergy and the murders of its misionaries, nuns and lay people working in parishes which were located in the main theatres of the war. The Catholic Church was accused by the Rhodesian government of being riddled with communism yet at the same time missionaries were brutalized by armed guerrilla assailants. The paper studies the experiences of some of the missions in the then Sinioa Prefecture (now Chinhoyi Diocese). The missions under study are St. Albert's, Kangaire, St Rupert's, St Boniface and St Paul's. It begins with the history of Jesuits in Zimbabwe, the establishment of the missions and then goes on to explain circumstances surrounding the misfortune of these missions. The escalation of the war saw St Ruperts, Kangaire and St Albert's closing between 1978 and 1979. At St Ruperts, the two German missionaries present were killed and a German priest was murdered at Kangaire. St Boniface mission lost its African catechist and closed as well.
2.Indigenous Knowledge Systems as a Survival Tool in the 21st Century Rural Zimbabwe. A Case for Selected Rural Communities in Zimbabwe
Choto, I and Chakawa, J Department of Historical Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
This study explores the indigenous knowledge systems which Zimbabweans in rural areas, particularly in Mashonaland West, used as a mechanism to survive in the past decade against the backdrop of economic meltdown, hunger and a variety of other debilitating challenges. Basically, the paper adopts a field-based qualitative and ethnographic approach which involves field surveys, direct observation, unstructured interviews and evaluation of traditional practices. As researchers, we participated in some of the activities we went out to observe. Rather than relying on formal interviews in artificial settings, the approach we adopted allowed for observation in natural settings. As the Zimbabwean crisis deepened rural communities relied more on their indigenous knowledge to cope with the life threatening challenges they faced in the areas of food supply, health, agriculture, hygiene and trade among others. However, the study decries the lack of a multidisciplinary approach to research in indigenous knowledge systems and recommends that the government, the academia and development agencies should adopt strategies to revive and mainstream these knowledge systems in community development programmes for sustainable rural development.
Joshua Chakawa firstname.lastname@example.org Department of Historical Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Rural dwellers, especially those in communal areas felt the wrath of the war more than any other group as both the Rhodesian state and guerrilla movements descended upon them. Their experience of violence, coercion and repression has taught them to be less willing to share sensitive war time stories with anyone who is a stranger to their network. More often they are prepared to say a lot in praise of guerrilla movements and the ZANU-PF party, but not much against. Others are not even prepared to share any wartime stories out of fear that they might be sniffed out by the ears and eyes of the state. This is particularly so when a researcher approaches those who were part of the Rhodesian system as members of any of its armed wings or were on the wanted list as sellouts or have suspicious liberation war credentials. Their fears go a long way in highlighting that the reconciliation process did not extend to grassroots and neither was the state sincere about the whole process. More specifically, the silence of rural dwellers is an indication of how the postcolonial Zimbabwean state monopolized nationalism through the threat of violence against anyone who tells a story which does not praise the ruling party or its guerrillas. It was ZIPRA guerrillas who fought in this predominantly Shona-speaking district but lost the general election of 1980. There are attempts by informants to try and link ZANLA to the war in Hurungwe but the truth is known. The paper discusses various challenges associated with collection of oral testimonies of the protracted liberation war in Hurungwe's unstable political environment. This paper suggests various mechanisms which could be employed in order to extract as much information as possible from rural informants. It also brings to light other challenges associated which are independent of the state.
4.Diplomacy, Regime Change agenda and the Survival of Zimbabwe in the New Millenium
Chigora, P.and Ziso, E. Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
The Zimbabwean government at the turn of the 2000 New Millennium received widespread ostracization by some sections of the international community particularly the West. As a fairly small state and weak vis-avis its erstwhile adversaries who are powerful, the clear expectation based on conventional wisdom is that the regime would collapse instantly. For Zimbabwe the course of events did not turn as expected. On the contrary, emerging has been the ability of Zimbabwe to influence the international community not only those in the developing world but also the Western World itself for support largely through diplomatic efforts. The regime has stood the test of time and has not altered its behaviour in the international system; its objectives have remained the same confronting its adversaries. The paper therefore, seeks to analyse the ways through which the regime has been able to use diplomacy as a tool in international relations to achieve its objective in the face of a heavy onslaught by the powerful section of the international community. In essence, the paper will largely provide the basis through which weak states in the developing world can successfully use diplomacy to achieve their foreign policy objectives in the face of the powerful global actors.
5.Zimbabwean plantation Workers' Condition of Work and Service: A Case of Manicaland Province.
Makaye P and Munhande C Department of Development Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
The colonial state the world over has been characterized as brutal and exploitative in that it denied the indigenous peoples from benefiting from their resources. In the case of Zimbabwe in particular, the settlers during the greater part of the first half of the 20th century took recourse to primitive accumulation of wealth as the hoped for Eldorado's failed to materialize. Following the failure of the "Second Rand" by the turn of the century, the settlers turned to agriculture. This resulted in a well calculated and managed process of land expropriation from the indigenous Africans. Thus agriculture became the backbone and corner stone of the colonial economy. African conditions of work and service in this sector have been regarded as the worst compared to other sectors and this history is well documented. The nationalist movements in their struggle against the colonial state pledged to improve the conditions of farm and plantation workers should they gain power. Was this promise fulfilled? This is the major question this paper grapples with. Basing on evidence gathered from plantations in Manicaland, it is argued in here that conditions of plantation as well as other farm workers have remained pathetic.
Keywords: Plantation workers, Struggle, Conditions of service, Expropriation, Uhuru
Mambambo, J. Faculty of Arts, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
The tower of Babel is the most celebrated Judeo-Christian myth explaining the rationale behind an array of languages spoken on the face of the earth. In colonial and neo-colonial Africa, technical knowledge has been assumed as naturally constructed in the European and Western languages. The flip side of this attitude is that African languages by their nature cannot incorporate knowledge and modern science and cannot be used to teach and learn Science subjects since English is "Unstralatable" This study seeks to expose the fallacy behind "untranslatability" by using practical examples from a bilingual Shona-English dictionary entitled Duramazwi reUrapi noUtano hence proving the linguistic property of language called immense complexity.
Keywords: Translation, untranslatability, scan and balance, spin-offs
7.Impact of the fast track land reform on rural poverty in Masvingo District in Zimbabwe
Matunhu J Department of Development Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
This study investigated the effect of the fast track land reform in addressing the poverty crisis in Masvingo district. The study targeted those rural residents who did not benefit land during the fast track land reform. The target population was the poor people who live in Masvingo area. The study triangulated the qualitative and quantitative research designs. The theoretical framework of the study is the revisionist theory which suggests that rural agriculture is a solution to the poverty crisis in rural communities. The study concluded that the agro-based land reforms in Zimbabwe did not reduce household poverty in Mushandike. The study recommended, among other things, the application of the sustainable rural development framework for analysis model to improve the livelihoods of the famers who did not move over to occupy new land in the resettlement areas.
Keyterms: Zimbabwe, Mushandike, Masvingo District, rural poverty, land distribution
8.'Silence In Court' Non-verbal communication in a Zimbabwean court of law
Saidi, U. and Pfukwa, C Midlands State University, Zimbabwe, P Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
A court of law is full of drama and rituals with a lot of perlocutionary effects. This article focuses on non-verbal communication which is an important aspect of semiotics and speech acts in legal discourse. The article first defines semiotics and briefly discusses Ferdinand de Saussure's contribution to semiotics. It goes on to discuss his description of the relationship between two pairs of important concepts in semiotics, the signifier and the signified as well as Charles Sanders Peirce's three basic kinds of signs, namely: the icon, the index and the symbol. John Austin's speech acts will also be discussed from the spectra of discourse analysis, given that a court of law provides, among others, the basis for legal discourse. The article further argues that the behaviour and actions of the members of the legal discourse community found in a court of law are 'culturely' determined, with different ways of expressing and interpreting reality. It then examines some aspects of the non-verbal code in a Zimbabwean court of law such as dress codes, movement and space, and how these convey messages that can influence the outcome of a case.
Keywords: Icon, kinesics, non-verbal, semiotics, sign, signified, signifier, symbol
9.Nationalism Will Never Die: Zimbabwean Discourses in the Global Age
Vhutuza, E. Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
This paper explores the relevance of the institution of nationalism in Zimbabwe in today's globalised world in the wake of calls by Post-modernists for a 'post-national age' following the fall of the colonialist enterprise in Africa and the demise of the bipolar world. To these scholars, nationalism has become an achronistic and its rightful place, the dustbins of history. This paper however, argues that nationalism as a multi-faceted and agile institution, mutates and transforms into different forms at different stages in the history of a people in space and time though admittedly, as demonstrated by the Zimbabwean nationalist discourses case study, it can produce its own denial. Without necessarily debating its merits or demerits, the paper argues that nationalism will continue to be relevant as long as people live and question injustices and/ or simply, attempt to redefine themselves in today's drive towards global identities.
10. 'Domestic Violence Act1 and the Apartheid of Gender' : A Critical Analysis of the Perceptions of Christian Women in Masvingo Province of Zimbabwe.
Viriri A, Chireshe E2 and Makahamadze T Faculty of Arts, 1Midlands State University, 2Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe
The article critically analyses the perceptions of Christian women in Masvingo Province on the Domestic Violence Act enacted by the Government of Zimbabwe in 2007 following a steep rise in the cases of domestic violence. It is quite sadistic to note in this article that women, all over the world, find great difficulties in articulating their own oppression. Domestic violence is a general concept which encompasses ill-treatment of men, children, the disabled, and many more but this article is an appraisal of a new world order that should oppose the apartheid of gender through the proper implementation of the Domestic Violence Act. The study reveals that the Act creates a more equitable, peaceful and co-operative world to eliminate all forms of domestic violence. Those who indicated lack of confidence in the Act argued that it is contrary to the teaching of the Church. Overally, the study will further reveal that the Act is an important piece of legislation as it complements the efforts of the growing number of women's organisations that are involved in the fight against their subordination in the whole world in general and Zimbabwe in particular. The marginalisations of other variables prone to violence are not of particular interest here. Women are more vulnerable than men in the same circumstances. It is demonstrated in this research that women face serious obstacles to development because of social and cultural discrimination against them on grounds of sex. The article therefore recommends to feminist academics, political activists, resource centres, women's groups, gender and development agencies, and policy makers to raise awareness of the importance of this useful piece of legislation, the Domestic Violence Act in entitling women to key resources such as land and employment. This Act confronts the socio-cultural and ideological roadblocks to women's empowerment and develops a positive action.
11.Glide Epenthesis as a Repairing Strategy of English Complex Peaks in the Tonga Linguistic Environment: The Distinctive Feature Paradigm
Zivenge W Department of African Languages and Culture, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
The paper discusses how epenthesis, as a nativisation process, is applied to English words that enter into the Tonga linguistic environment as borrowings. It is generally the habit of speech communities that when they borrow new words from another language into their own systems, they nativise them to suit the linguistic expectations of their languages. This is because of the fact that there is not any language which is a replica of the other. Languages are unique in as much as the speakers of these languages are. As a result the phonological and morphological systems of languages are different. When new words find their way into another language, they are therefore linguistically remodeled to suit the rules of the receiving languages. One of the processes that can be adopted for this particular purpose is epenthesis. It is therefore the scope of this paper to discuss how English words, borrowed into the Tonga language are nativised, using the epenthetic principles. Only languages that are complete and integral can effectively handle loans. It is also within the framework of this discussion to assert Tonga as a complete and integral language or not, depending on how its speakers handle loans. Tonga borrows words from the English language quite often. The discussion is informed by the Distinctive Feature Theory. The theory enables the author to justify certain epenthetic behaviors that take place on English loans in the process of nativisation by the Tonga native speakers.
1.Achieving research excellence Zimbabwean universities: A review based on the eight anchor elements characterising excellent companies
Duve, R. Department of Marketing Management, Midlands state University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Abstract This paper discusses the importance of achieving quality university research and how the research contributes to the success of industry and commerce in Zimbabwe.The research boards in universities are under stress due to limited resources and budgetary constraints.There are eight anchor elements that characterize most successful companies in United States of America that can be used as a framework of achieving research breakthrough in institutions of higher learning in Zimbabwe.Being stakeholder driven institutions of, the issue underpins the importance of being more closer to the customers in so far as research excellence can be achieved. The author further seeks to add a ninth anchor element, leadership which is the umbilical cord which houses the 8 anchor elements that characterise companies that have achieved breakthrough in business strategies. Lastly, the author assesses the importance of magnetic leadership for achieving research breakthrough in universities.
2.Liquidity Management by Commercial Banks in a Multiple Currencying Regime: The Zimbabwean Experience
Chikoko L and Pierre LeRoux Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
Abstract One of the major reasons for bank failures and crises has been attributed to liquidity risk. The aim of this study hence was to analyse various practices of liquidity management in Zimbabwean banking sector given the multiple currencying environment. The ultimate objective was to come up with strategies that could be adopted to strengthen the monitoring of more comprehensive set of liquidity risk indicators. Finally, the research aimed to recommend survival strategies for banks in managing liquidity risk in such an environment. Empirical analysis in this research showed that (i) Some banks were still struggling to raise the minimum capital requirements (ii) Liquidity in the banking sector during 2009/2010 continued to be constrained, mainly due to funding constraints (iii) Liquidity risk management in Zimbabwe was still guided by the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Risk Management Guideline BSD-04, 2007 which was crafted prior to the multiple currencying regime (iv) All banks had liquidity risk management frameworks but some banks were not adhering to the guidelines and violating set limits. Based on these findings, the research concluded that liquidity risk management in a multiple currencying environment was complex. This called for need to build comprehensive liquidity frameworks as defenses against liquidity stress by banks with strengthened supervision, particularly as the macroeconomic and financial market developments in Zimbabwe has led to an increase in many bank's overall exposure to liquidity risk. The research proposed a comprehensive liquidity management framework that can be used by banks to manage liquidity which consist of (i) qualitative factors (ii) quantitative factors and (iii) having a liquidity crisis management framework by banks. This would facilitate banks to deal with illiquidity in a manner that would be less disruptive and could help make any future crisis less painful.
Keywords: Commercial Banks, Multiple Currencying Regime, Liquidity Risk Management,International Banking Standards, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Risk Management Guidelines.
3.Evaluation of Pricing Strategies Used by Informal, Retail Traders in Gweru CBD Area
Mhonde C, Sikomwe S, Nyamwanza T1 1.Department of Business Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe 2.Department of Enterprenuership, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Abstract During the period 2006 to 2008 the economy of Zimbabwe experienced economic turbulence resulting in many large and small companies closing. The effect was an increase in unemployment levels to levels close to 80%. In an effort to sustain families, and to supplement incomes many people turned to informal sector trading because of the ease of entry into the sector. This research looks at strategies used by the informal trades to wade completion. The results indicate that the majority use cost-based pricing model, it was also noted that the exit levels are high as are the entry level because money was not being accounted for and sometimes used for other unrelated expenses. This is because the majority of the players in the informal sector are engaging in the trade for survival purposes in a constrained economy. We end the discourse by recommending that the sector has potential for growth but training is needed and proper structures should be put in place.
4.FIFA 2010 World Cup: Preparedness of Zimbabwean Hotels
Zibanai Zhou Midlands State University, Tourism and Hospitality Management Department, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Abstract Staging a mega sport event such as the world cup has been traditionally viewed as a golden opportunity for urban regeneration and economic development. Research into the preparedness of hospitality service providers to host millions of visitors associated with world cup sport events is limited. This paper discusses the state of preparedness for Zimbabwean hotels in anticipation of the world cup sport event hosted by South Africa. The study used a purposive sampling of twenty local hotel players in the category of 3-5 stars. Data were collected through self-administered eighteen questionnaires. Findings show that the majority of hotels have increased accommodation capacity ahead of the event. However, findings also demonstrated differences in the level of preparedness for local hotels with hotels in the northern region in the back foot than their southern counterparts. All operators were equally concerned about an ineffective air transport system. Service providers showed lack of confidence that they will benefit from the world cup event due to the poor national payment system and excessive hotel rates. These findings contradict planned refurbishments and human resource training that are currently underway. The study recommends urgent destination endorsement, re-introduction of credit cards, and consensus on the appropriate pricing strategy.
Keywords: Zimbabwean hotels, preparedness, 2010 FIFA World Cup.
1.A Constructivist Approach to the Design and Delivery of an Online Professional Development Course: A Case of the iEARN Online Course
Chitanana, L. Department of Educational Technology, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe email@example.com
Abstract This study examined the International Education and Resource Network ScienceTechnology and Math (iEARN-STM) online professional development course. The study used the constructivist framework as the conceptual model to examine the way in which the constructivist theory has shaped the design and implementation of the course, as reflected by the interactions of a cohort of participants in the course. The participants were 28 educators enrolled in the course, who were either teacher educators or teachers, working in different educational institutions in different countries throughout the world. The purpose of the study was to understand how the iEARN online professional development course supported teachers’ learning through effective discourse in an onlineenvironment and to identify the constructivist learning principles that were behind the success of the course. The design of the course appeared to have a positive impact on participants' collaboration with peers. Results of the study confirms earlier research findings that the constructivist approach to course design and delivery provides a powerful structure for creating learning environments conducive to the development of professional skills among educators. Results of this study can be used to assist professional development coordinators and administrators to plan effective professional development. The results of the study are also expected to contribute to improvements in the design of professional development course content, instruction, delivery and administration, focusing on factors such as program model, delivery, contextual factors or best practices.
Abstract The study sought to establish the kind of computer prior knowledge (CPK) students in a teacher training college possessed before enrolling with college. It also analyzed the differences in students' cognitive and affective outputs in their computer studies between students with CPK and those without it. Participants were 168 students from a teachers' college (males = 63; females = 105; average age = 31; SD =6, 74). Data were collected using a structured survey questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS to determine differences in students' perceived computer self–efficacy (CSE) and academic performance in their computer studies between the two groups. Almost half the students were computer illiterate before joining college. A majority of students with CPK had little experience in using the computers prior to joining college while very few had computer qualification. Most of the students with CPK possessed basic computer hardware and software skills and a few others, higher order computer skills. The computer CSE of students without CPK compared badly with that of students with CPK. Both the groups of students experienced difficulties in learning advanced computer skills. Students with CPK displayed better performance in computers than students without it in a statistically significant manner. Hence results of this study confirm the importance of computer prior knowledge. This has implications on policy for running computer courses with respect to grouping students, effecting differentiated instruction and strategies for dealing with students' learning difficulties in the higher learning institution.
3.Functions Served by Corporal Punishment: Adolescent Perspectives
Gwirayai P University of Fort Hare, Alice Campus, Private Bag X1314, Alice, 5700, RSA. E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
This exploratory study investigated the functions served by corporal punishment as perceived by high school students in a developing country. A qualitative research design was used. Participants were a convenient sample of five high school students. Data were collected using the focus group interview technique. Results show that adolescents have contesting views on the functions served by corporal punishment in school. Adolescents' perspectives coalesced into three main conceptual spheres namely: hedonistic/sadistic, regulatory and instrumental functions. Teachers and other professionals, whose mandate is the welfare of adolescents, need to recognise the influence and importance of adolescent perspectives on functions served by corporal punishment.
Keywords: adolescents; corporal punishment; children's rights; perspectives; high school
4.Children's Rights: How Much Do Zimbabwe Urban Secondary School Pupils Know?
Gwirayi a,P. and Shumba b A. a. Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe b. School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities, Central University of Technology, Free State Bloemfontein, South Africa
Abstract Research shows that the violation of the rights of the child manifests in various forms in our society. This study sought to investigate children's awareness about their rights and organisations which deal with their rights in Zimbabwean schools. The study is informed by the Empowerment Theory. Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of 376 secondary school children (200 male, 176 female; age range 12 to 16 years) from 3 schools in Gweru Urban District of Zimbabwe. Children were asked to list their rights and organisations which deal with child rights on given worksheets. The study found that most of the children were not aware about their rights and organisations which deal with their rights. The introduction of Children's Rights as a subject in schools can help increase children's safety, protection and well-being. There is also need to put more thrust on workshops and seminars on Children's Rights in Zimbabwean schools.
5.The Effectiveness of Mechanisms and Guidelines for the Implementation of the Aids Action Programme in Zimbabwe Secondary Schools
Muguwe, E. and Gwirayi, P.
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe
Abstract This study investigated the effectiveness of mechanisms and guidelines which were put in place by the Ministry of Education Sports and Culture, to facilitate the implementation of the Aids Action Programme in Zimbabwe schools. The sample consisted of twelve school heads and twenty-four teachers, drawn from the twelve secondary schools in Gweru district of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to teachers while the school heads were interviewed. The study found out that the mechanisms which have been put in place for the implementation of the Aids Action Programme were effective to a limited extent. A number of constraints which rendered the mechanisms and guidelines ineffective were unraveled. All school heads and most teachers indicated that time allocated to the program was inadequate, which impacted negatively on the success of the program. On capacity building, the study found out that teachers made a lot of initiatives in improving their education in line with contemporary and challenging issues such as HIV and AIDS. However, the percentage of teachers without in-service training remains high. Heads and teachers indicated the need for more workshops and seminars at any given time as this has an impact on the implementation process. Results also revealed that parents, families and communities were minimally involved. Shortage of teaching and learning materials specifically for HIV and AIDS and unavailability of syllabi were major drawbacks, which were bound to render the mechanisms ineffective. The study recommended that time allocated to teaching of HIV and AIDS should be increased to at least two periods per week and the subject should be examinable. Furthermore, capacity building should be enhanced so that training covers all teachers concerned with provision for periodic in-service training. There is need for continuous monitoring of the program to ensure effectiveness of mechanisms. The government should allocate a percentage of the AIDS levy to the Ministry of Education, Sport, and Culture in order to sustain the availability of resources needed in the teaching of this important subject.
Keywords: Effectiveness; Mechanisms and Guidelines; Implementation; Aids Action Programme; School Heads; Teachers; Zimbabwe
6.College Tutors’ Perceptions of the Source of bias in Teaching Practice Assessment in Zimbabwe
Jeko I and Mangwaya E Department of Educational Foundations, Management and Curriculum Studies, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe
Abstract This study examines the source of bias in teaching practice assessment. Following a descriptive survey design, the researchers utilized a questionnaire to solicit views of a random sample of fifty-one college tutors working in three primary teacher training colleges in Zimbabwe. College tutors generally regard bias as highly prevalent in teaching practice assessment. In specific terms, college tutors routinely deviate from criteria of assessment as indicated on schedules of assessment, privileging factors entirely irrelevant to teaching effectiveness. It also came to light that inexperienced tutors tend to be particularly prone to bias when assessing teaching practice. The study recommended team assessment whereby more experienced tutors work with their less experienced counterparts as a way of mitigating bias in assessment of teaching practice. Additionally, the study calls for fostering continuous dialogue among college tutors on the interpretation of criteria of teaching practice assessment through seminars and workshops.
Keywords: Zimbabwe, college tutors, assessment, teaching practice, bias.
7.Challenges Faced by Girls in Learning Science in Mixed Sex Schools of Marondera East District
Marimo, S. T. Faculty of Education, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Abstract This study established the perceptions of teachers, pupils and school heads on difficulties girls face in learning science in mixed sex schools. A descriptive survey design was adopted. A Closed-ended questionnaire was administered to female science students. Structured interviews were conducted with male students, science teachers and school heads. The data was analysed using the manual sort and count, grouped, coded, classified, categorized and trends and patterns analysed as they emerged. The study established that teachers are aware of some obvious factors such as teachers’ biases and preferential treatment of boys as factors that hinder girls’ progress in science. Teachers were however not clear of the link between subtle cultural norms, the masculine nature of science and the poor performance of girls in science. Girls on their part cited patriarchal values such as hostile class environments, domestic gendered division of labour, and unfriendly teaching styles as some of the constraints to their progress in science. The study proposed the engendering of the teacher education science curriculum as well as in-service of practicing teachers as ways to reduce the burden faced by girls in studying science.
8.The Prevalence of Corporal Punishment in Zimbabwean Schools in the Twenty-First Century: A Case Study of Gweru
Matope, N. and Mugodzwa, T. Department of Gender Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Abstract This study investigated the prevalence of corporal punishment in Zimbabwean secondary schools in the first decade of the twenty first century. The focus of the study was to analyze the perceptions of students, teachers and heads in Gweru Urban secondary schools on the continued use of corporal punishment. Currently progressive scholars are calling for child centred and liberative pedagogy while human rights activists are calling for the banning of corporal punishment in schools. The study employed the descriptive survey method and the research instruments used were the questionnaire and the interview schedule. A sample of 5 school heads, 30 teachers and 45 students was selected. Research findings revealed that the use of corporal punishment is widespread in Gweru Urban secondary schools and it is applied indiscriminately on both female and male students. However, this is in direct contradiction and violation of the Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture’s Minute number 362 of 1998 which clearly stresses that where it becomes necessary to apply corporal punishment heads are directly responsible or any member of staff authorized by the head, and that female students should not be subjected to any form of corporal punishment. The findings revealed that truancy, disruptive behaviour, bullying and theft are the main causes leading to the prevalence of corporal punishment in schools. The study recommends that teachers and heads need to be conscientised to adopt a democratic and professional conduct in their interaction with students. Guidance and counselling are also recommended as alternative means to corporal punishment. There is need to move away from the retrogressive practice of administering corporal punishment as it is deemed dehumanizing by the respondents.
9.A Comparative Analysis of Perception Levels of Accuracy for Indigenous Weather Forecasts and Meteorological Forecasts: The Case of Wards 12 And 13, Mberengwa District, Zimbabwe
Shoko K*, Shoko N1 *Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe 1Department of Educational Foundations, Management and Curriculum Studies, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe
Abstract Residents of wards 12 and 13 in Mberengwa depend on subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods. These residents incorporate weather forecasts in agricultural decision-making especially in decisions that relate to crop production. The residents of the two wards, have since developed their own indigenous weather forecasting systems that they use in conjunction with meteorological weather forecasts for agricultural planning purposes. This study examines the perceptions of the residents of wards 12 and 13 on the levels of accuracy of indigenous and meteorological weather forecasts. The data was collected using questionnaires and focus, group discussions. Purposive sampling was used to select the respondents. 66% of the respondents indicated that indigenous weather forecasts’ accuracy fell in the ‘average’ to ‘good’ rating while 59 % indicated that they rated meteorological weather forecasts as ‘average’ to ‘good’. Comparative ratings of the accuracy of indigenous weather forecasts to meteorological weather forecasts showed that 91% of the respondents who had access to both meteorological and indigenous weather forecasts perceived the indigenous weather forecasts as being more reliable than meteorological weather forecasts. The study recommends an in-depth research of the indigenous weather forecasting systems so that the locals may fully benefit from this simple, inexpensive and easily accessible system of weather forecasting.
10.Teacher Incentives: A Death Knell for Education in Zimbabwe?
Shoko N, Manyumwa E, Muguwe, E. and Taruvinga, F.C Department of Educational Foundations, Management and Curriculum Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Abstract Government is failing to pay teachers sustainable salaries. In an attempt to improve the teacher ‘s incomes and to check strikes and brain drain, The Government through circular minute number 5 of 2009, directed that ten percent (10%) of the levies collected by schools should go towards paying teachers’ incentives. This led to an outcry in the media by both parents and teachers. This study set out to establish the problems that emanated from the payment of the 10% incentives at local level. One hundred and fifty (150) questionnaires were distributed to teachers who were conveniently sampled among 1200 teachers who were marking the ZIMSEC November 2009 ‘O’ level examinations at Chinhoyi University of Technology. Interviews were conducted with 30 parents who were conveniently sampled from 100 parents whose children attended school in three Gweru district secondary schools. The total sample was one hundred and eighty (180) participants. The findings indicated that the incentive payment programme has created disparities among the teachers’ incomes, leading to discontent among many of them who were not receiving the incentives. Seventy (70%) of the teachers indicated that they had since stopped serious teaching in class and were running parallel activities that included offering private lessons within the school premises. Twenty percent (20%) of those who were receiving the incentive said they were working hard as continued payment of the incentive depended on the quality of results they produced. The study recommends that the payment of incentives should be lifted off the shoulders of parents and that government must take full care of its employees.
Keywords: Incentives, teacher, school development committee, school development association.
11.A Constructivist Approach to the Design and Delivery of an Online Professional Development Course: A Case Of The iEARN Online Course
Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Abstract The study used the constructivist framework as the conceptual model to examinethe way in which the constructivist theory has shaped the design andimplementation of the course, as reflected by the interactions of a cohort of participants in the course. The participants were 28 educators enrolled in thecourse, who were either teacher educators or teachers, working in differenteducational institutions in different countries throughout the world. The purposeof the study was to understand how the iEARN online professional developmentcourse supported teachers’ learning through effective discourse in an onlineenvironment and to identify the constructivist learning principles that were behindthe success of the course. The design of the course appeared to have a positiveimpact on participants’ collaboration with peers. Results of the study confirmsearlier research findings that the constructivist approach to course design anddelivery provides a powerful structure for creating learning environmentsconducive to the development of professional skills among educators. Results of this study can be used to assist professional development coordinators andadministrators to plan effective professional development. The results of the studyare also expected to contribute to improvements in the design of professionaldevelopment course content, instruction, delivery and administration, focusing onfactors such as program model, delivery, contextual factors or best practices.
1"Small Houses": Disruptions or Re-Ordering Sexulity in Zimbabwe?
Hungwe C Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Abstracts The article analyses the Zimbabwean phenomenon of "small houses" in order to determine whether or not involvement in such sexual arrangements liberates women. It analyses the level of subversion or disruption to sexual power caused by these relationships and documents the challenges these women opt for this type of relationship as well as the peculiar issues of ambivalence, conflicts, frustration and agency they face within them. By raising questions about agency for "small houses","visiting married men" and "wives"
Keywords: small houses, sexuality, agency, femininity, masculinity, ambivalence, respectability.
2.Challenges of Employee retention in two Non-Governmental Organisations Operating in Zimbabwe
Mutambara S, Hungwe C *Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist, Mercy Corps, Checheche, Zimbabwe 1.Department of Human Resource Management, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
The study analyses challenges of retaining employees in non-governmental organisations in an economically distressed environment showing the link between employee commitment and turnover. This is an exploratory qualitative case study. Seventy employees (including 10 former employees who were interviewed through the telephone), from two Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) participated in this study through questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and semi-structured interviews. There is a serious problem of retention since 42% of workers would like to leave their organisation given a choice. Workers identified poor labour relations and poorly administered remuneration systems as major causes of dissatisfaction and staff turnover. Workers expected improvement of the labour relations, salaries and staff development programs in order to improve employee retention. Limited funding made it difficult for the two NGOs to provide more secure employment and invest in staff development and motivation and hence retain talent. The research implications are that NGOs should facilitate a learning organisational environment where employees feel valued and receive the necessary support to realise their potential and improve worker commitment. The value of the research is that no known study has been carried out to study employee retention in the non-profit sector in Zimbabwe. The study is exploratory and fills a gap currently existing concerning retention of employees in NGOs.
Keyterms: Retention; turnover; remuneration; engagement; commitment; labour relations; disengagement.
3.The Utilisation Of Computer Technology In Environmental Studies At Midlands State University, Zimbabwe: A Focus On The Departments Of Geography And Environmental Studies And Surveying and Geomatics
S Jerie and G. Munyavi Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University
This study assesses the utilization of computer technology at a recently established institution of higher learning, the Midlands State University in Zimbabwe. The study focuses on how computer technology is used in environmental studies in the related academic departments of geography and environmental studies and surveying and geomatics. Data collection methods included questionnaire surveys directed at students and lecturers, interviews with key informants such chairpersons of the two departments, lecturers of computer related modules such as geographical information systems, laboratory technicians and the information technology officer. Secondary data sources included the Midlands State University website, the university yearbook and transcripts of departmental modules. Data collection aimed at revealing the current state of computer utilization in the departments, problems encountered by students and lecturers in the utilization of computer technology and the measures being put in place to overcome the problems. The results revealed that there were inadequate computers in use in the departments and hence inadequate access to computers by staff and students. There is limited use of relevant GIS software such as Arc View, and ILWIS and this tends to be outdated. Computer security is also an area of concern due to viruses, as the computers are not fully protected by anti-viruses. There is need to continue equipping the computer laboratories with new computers and GIS software and the necessary anti-virus licenses as well as continuous servicing of the computers.
4.Gender and Solid Waste Management in the Informal Sector of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
Jerie S Department of Geography and Environmental Studies. Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
This paper aims at assessing the role of gender in solid waste management in the informal sector in the high density suburbs of Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe. The quantitative approach used in data collection involved physical characterisation of waste for composition analysis and the measurement of amounts of waste generated in the informal sector. Questionnaire surveys were also used to gather data on waste management practices by gender. Interviews, focus group discussions and participant observations were employed for the collection of qualitative data. Results showed the dominance of women in trades such as food catering and vending, clothes retailing, basket making and textiles while men dominated in motor mechanics, carpentry, welding, tinsmith, spare parts and door and window frame making. Generally, more solid waste is generated in enterprises operated by men than those operated by women. There is generally poor management of waste in the home industries; however, there is a greater level of cleanliness in the enterprises run by women who engage in waste reduction practices such as waste picking and recycling. It is thus necessary to incorporate gender perspectives in all developmental efforts including solid waste management in the informal sector.
5.The Impact of Rainfall Variability on Rain-Fed Tobacco in Manicaland Province of Zimbabwe
Steven Jerie Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
T. Ndabaningi Meteorological Services Department, Harare
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of rainfall variability on tobacco production in Nyazura district of Manicaland in Zimbabwe between 1999 and 2009. Tobacco, which is the most important cash crop and a major earner of foreign currency in Zimbabwe, is thought to be one of the crops severely affected by climate change especially in Nyazura district. However, no study has been carried out to assess the relationship between tobacco production records and climate change especially rainfall variability over the years. Questionnaires and interviews were used in data collection. Questionnaires were distributed to farmers and Agricultural Research Extension (AREX) officers were interviewed. Secondary data was obtained from the Meteorological Department, the Central Statistical Office, and the Tobacco Sales Floor. Rainfall data from the district was correlated with tobacco yields data from the same district. The result from the correlation co-efficient showed there is a positive correlation between tobacco yields and the amount of rainfall. The study showed that among other causes, rainfall variability is a major factor influencing the decline in yield and farmers are very much aware of climate variability in their district. There is need for resource mobilization to fund community-based projects such as borehole drilling, irrigation, and cultivation of tobacco cultivars which are drought tolerant.
6.The Transition from A-Level to Under-Graduate Geography: A Focus on Midlands State University, Zimbabwe
1 S. Jerie and R. Mangizvo 1.Lecturer, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe 2.Lecturer, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Zimbabwe Open University, Midlands Region, Zimbabwe
Geography demands good analytical and reporting skills and these are taught for application in real world situations. Geography is therefore, a natural complement to many other subjects in the physical sciences and the humanities. It can be combined with science subjects such as biology, chemistry and mathematics or with commercial subjects such as accounting, management of business and economics or with arts subjects such as history, English, sociology and development studies. Geography at degree level needs to be clearly the same subject as at A-Level and so there needs to be a substantial amount of continuity with similar issues examined and with a similar factual base using similar analytical concepts. It is also true that degree level study must offer something over and above A-Level and students should be exposed to new issues using concepts that are new to them. Balancing these two issues is a real problem in the transition to undergraduate geography. For individual students, the first year is a significant transition point, one that may affect the development of attitudes towards continuing learning at tertiary education and beyond. It may also be a line to evaluate how prepared individual students are, and whether they need to do better support in their tertiary studies. The first year has also been identified as the year in which the greatest amount of academic failure and attrition from study occurs. Students tend to find the course more difficult than they had expected and they have problems balancing personal relationships with study.
7.Is Dollarisation the Panacea for Zimbabwe's Economic Challenges?
Mangizvo R, Jerie S1 *Doctorate Student, University of Fort Hare 1.Faculty of Social Sciences, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
This paper is a bird’s eye view on the pros and cons of dollarisation on the Zimbabwean economy. On January 29, 2009 Zimbabwe fully legalised the use of foreign currency for domestic transactions releasing the economy from the grip of the Reserve Bank which had printed enough money to drive the country into hyperinflation. At the height of hyperinflation in November 2008 prices were doubling every 24.7 hours or an equivalent daily inflation of 98%. Dollarisation which was underlined by political accommodation had the immediate effect of stopping hyperinflation and the country entered deflation leading to the decline of consumer prices. However, a major problem the country is facing despite dollarisation is that of being locked in a liquidity crunch making it difficult to justify the country's economic asset pricing. Moreover, the benefits of dollarisation remain invisible to the majority since 80% of the people are unemployed. Despite these challenges the stabilisation of the political system through the formation of the coalition government and the commencement of sound economic policies meant that Zimbabwe has begun a crucial reconstruction phase.
8.Taking the Test: Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) among Midlands State University Students
Madebwe, V., 1 Madebwe, C 2 3, Pazvakavambwa3 , L and Muringaniza, K. C. R. 3 1.Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe. 2.Department of Mathematics, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe. 3.Research Assistant, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe. E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
The study examined voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) among Midlands State University students. Probability sampling was used to select the 173 students that took part in the questionnaire survey. Students were selected from each department in the faculties of Arts, Education, Science, Social Sciences and Natural Resources and Agriculture. The majority of students (81.1%) were aged below 25 years and predominantly single (90.2%). Most of the students had heard about VCT but only 28% and 27% of male and female students respectively had taken the HIV/AIDS test before the survey. Among those who had not undergone VCT 87% of male and 91% of female students expressed a willingness to be tested for HIV/AIDS. More male (54%) than female students (43%) would choose to take the test on campus. Fifty-seven percent of male students and 68% of female students who had sex in the 6 months preceding the survey did not use a condom at last sex suggesting a low HIV/AIDS risk perception among students. There is need to invigorate on-campus HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention programmes. The university may need to consider setting up an HIV/AIDS office to make HIV/AIDS prevention programmes more visible and interactive.
9.Involuntary Displacement and Resettlement to Make Way for Diamond Mining: The Case of Chiadzwa Villagers in Marange, Zimbabwe
Madebwe C, Madebwe V, and Mavusa S. 1.Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
Rural communities bear a disproportionate burden of the cost of development projects. The paper is a preliminary examination of the displacement and resettlement in May 2011 of villagers from Chiadzwa in Marange communal area to make way for diamond mining. Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and key informant interviews. Snowball sampling was used to recruit respondents. By December 2011, a total of 600 families will have been resettled at ARDA Transau farm in Odzi in Manicaland Province. More displacements from the mining concession are planned for 2012 and 2013 as determined by stages in mining development. To avert homelessness, landlessness and food insecurity each displaced family was allocated a 3-bedroomed house, 11hectares of arable land including 1 hectare earmarked for irrigation and a once off US$1 000 disturbance allowance. Each family will also get agricultural inputs for the first agriculture season post resettlement and basic food items every four months until the next harvest. Five months after relocation displaced families do not know how much and when they will get compensation for loss of economic and non economic assets. Two months before the start of the agriculture season land preparation has not started. Secondary school pupils travel 8 km to the nearest school. Pre- displacement the families’ derived livelihood from agriculture and artisanal diamond mining. Current initiatives foster dependency rather than rehabilitation, development and livelihood sustainability.
10.Challenges of Achieving Domestic Water use Efficiency: The Role of Water Demand Management in Gweru, Zimbabwe.
Madebwe V. and Madebwe C. Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
The paper examined the role of water demand management instruments to achieve domestic water use efficiency in Gweru. Household water consumption histories were reconstructed using monthly household water consumption records for 2005 to 2010. Background characteristics of household heads were taken into consideration when analyzing water consumption patterns. To manage water demand the City uses socioeconomic instruments like differential water rate structures, education and reduction in water releases to domestic consumers using mechanical devices. These measures are expected to impact domestic water consumption patterns by curtailing perceived non essential uses of water. Results show that impact of these measures on household water consumption is varied. There is a relationship between income and water consumption. Water consumption in high income residential areas is high due to presence of high water demanding indoor appliances and outdoor activities. Households in low income residential areas react to water price disincentives by restricting consumption to basic needs. To succeed water demand management strategies must be supported by robust institutional, legislative and regulatory frameworks for enforcement of the water demand management instruments.
Keywords: Water demand management, water use efficiency, sustainable
11.Environmental compliance and enforcement in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe
Madebwe Victor1, Madebwe Crescentia2, Madebwe Tinashe M3 1.Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 2.Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe, E-mail: email@example.com 3.International Environmental Law University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Concern for the quality of the environment worldwide, particularly in developing countries has resulted in the formulation, implementation, and enforcement of environmental regulation. A measure of the success of efforts at enforcement lies in whether they secure compliance. In Zimbabwe, like in other countries of Africa, there is scarce information on environmental enforcement and outcomes among the regulated community. This paper uses the Natural Resources Board and the Environmental Management Agency's (EMA) annual provincial data of summary statistics for the period 2005–2010 to analytically review temporal environmental compliance and enforcement activities in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. Annual inspections rose from 658 in 2005 to 1705 in 2007 but it still remains inadequate to detect and monitor the range/types of environmental violations. The number of violators brought to compliance in any year is suboptimal. Most violations attracting fines (79%) fall under the Environmental Management Act CAP 20:27 followed by the Forestry Act CAP 19:05(16%). Fines range from US$ 5 to US$ 5,000. As the economy stabilizes and businesses reopen, frequency of inspections, particularly targeted inspections, should be scaled up.
12.Ethnographic film and the teaching of African music: A technological approach of representing past musical hegemonies.
Matiure P. and Shoko T. Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Teaching African music in schools has not yet received adequate attention from curriculum planners in respect of the involvement of ethnographic film as pedagogy of teaching music. Film as an aid to teaching and learning attempts to present a learning atmosphere in which music is learned in its performative and contextual state. Students are afforded an opportunity to experience music as it is used by the society to solve cosmological problems. In this article the writer attempts to justify the use of ethnographic film in the teaching of African music to students who have not been exposed to music in the society. The information that supports this article is drawn from the writer's personal experiences in the field as he was collecting data for his Master thesis recording audio-visual images. He discovered that film can play a very important role of representing a particular ethnic group's music in its totality. A teacher can bring life to his/her teaching by making use of film. Students can have an opportunity to observe the protagonists performing a particular dance in its performative state. Although expensive, the use of film in teaching indigenous music will go a long way in closing the gap between reality and theory. A lot of teaching content can then be drawn. This article will unpack the vast different content that children can be subjected to from one single ethnographic film. The information that furnishes this article was collected through desk research approach as well as face to face interviews with music lectures who teach indigenous music at Midlands State University.
Key Words: Ethnographic film, audio-visual images, mapira, indigenous music
13.Mbira dzavadzimu and its space within the Shona Cosmology: Tracing mbira from bira to the spiritual world.
Matiure P. Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Mbira dzavadzimu is a musical instrument commonly associated with the Zezuru, a sub-ethnic group of the Shona of Zimbabwe. Its popularity is drawn from its ability to ensnare the spirits in spirit mediums. It is a common belief that the Zezuru, like any other African ethnic group have a very strong relationship with their ancestors. This progeny - progenitor relationship depicts an everlasting relationship between the living and the dead and ultimately acts as the basis of the Shona philosophy that death is not the end of life but a break through into a totally new world of the invisible which they call nyikadzimu. In this article the writer will unpack the indigenous knowledge system that informs the Shona cosmology as it relates to mbira dzavadzimu and its space in Shona spirituality. The data that furnishes this article is part of the writer’s 2009 unpublished Master thesis in which the writer establishes the relationship between mbira dzavadzimu modes and spirit possession. The study adopted an ethnographic paradigm in which empirical data was collected through participant observation during a field study in Chikomba and Hwedza Districts. The data was then analyzed qualitatively and the findings revealed that both the mbira instrument and the pieces performed on it belong to the ancestors hence there is a very strong and permanent relationship between mbira pieces and spirit possession. It is from this relationship that mbira music draws the power to evoke spirits in spirit mediums (masvikiro) during all knight ceremonies (mapira). Consequently the whole Shona cosmology greatly dependents on mbira dzavadzimu.
14.Challenges and Prospects for Peace and Security in Africa: Why China matters?
Percyslage Chigora Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe Email: email@example.com
Abstract Africa is on the radar screen of global public opinion in an exceptional way. The end of the cold war did marshal in an era of anticipation and encouragement in Africa, a continent that had been adversely affected by slavery, colonialism, neo-colonialism and cold war politics. But it appears the challenges have continued with new ones emerging. The making of the African Unionis reminiscent of the challenges and the need to redefine Africa in the framework of global environment that is primarily directed towards achievement of security of not only member states and the continent at large but also at individual level. Arising from modern understanding of security the African continent is embroiled in peace and security challenges that the newly transformed African multilateral institution and other international actors have to address. This paper examines the challenges and prospects of peace and security. It analyses the drivers of insecurity that seem to have emerged from auspicious combination of factors that cut across all spheres of human interaction, i.e. personal, institutional, lack of unity of purpose, conflict of interest, lack of standards of measurement, lack of technology, lack of resources and external manipulation and exploitation. The paper will further expose the weaknesses characterizing states in Africa and suggesting ways of dealing with insecurity situation. The role that China can play in enhancing peace and security in Africa will also be explored.
1.Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Musa Paradisiaca as an Anticoccidial Drug in Poultry
Mika, H.P. and Buruzi, P. Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
This study showed that Banana root are effective in controlling coccidiosis in broilers under intensive management system. It further demonstrates that the banana root extract is numerically superior to the conventional drug ESb3®. The use of banana roots is cheaper and sustainable given the abundance of the banana trees in Sub-Saharan Africa.
2.Effects of Different Plant Populations on Yield of Different Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Varieties in a Smallholder Sector of Zimbabwe
Madanzi, T.* Chiduza, C. Richardson Kageler S.J. and Muziri T. *Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract A study was conducted at Chinyika Resettlement Area (Chinyudze, Gowakowa, Pfumoiguru and Chinyudze) and at Thornpark Estates (University of Zimbabwe Farm) to evaluate the effects of different plant populations (100 000, 150 000, 200 000, 250 000 plants ha-1) on the yield and yield components of three different specific nodulating soybean varieties during the 2002/2003 (Storm, Safari and Solitaire) and four varieties during the 2003/2004 rainy season (Storm, Safari, Solitaire and Magoye). In 2002/2003 the trial was laid as a 3x4 factorial treatment structure under Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) while during the 2003/2004 the trial was laid as a 4x4 factorial treatment structure replicated thrice. Results showed that there was a significant interaction (p<0.05) on yield due to plant population and variety main effects at Pfumoiguru. The highest yield was obtained between 200 000 and 250000 plants ha-1 while the indeterminate grain type of varieties, Safari and Solitaire obtained the highest yield across all sites. Farmers in marginal areas like Chinyika Resettlement Area may plant soybean at between 200000 and 250000 plants ha-1 while indeterminates like Solitaire and Safari may also be considered. In high potential areas like Thornpark Estates, farmers can grow soybean at 250000 plants ha-1 or at the recommended plant population of 300000 plants ha-1 across all varieties except for Magoye which achieved higher yield at 100000 plants ha-1.
3.Seed priming, genotype and sowing date effects on emergence, growth and yield of wheat in a tropical low altitude area of Zimbabwe
Murungu1* F. S. and Madanzi2 T. 1Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Durban, South Africa. 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
Abstract Low wheat yields in low altitude tropical areas result from short winter seasons, late planting and poor stand establishment. Field experiments were carried out over two winter seasons (2005 and 2006) in the south-eastern lowveld of Zimbabwe to investigate effects of seed treatment (non-primed and primed seed), sowing date (2 May, 16 May, 1 June and 16 June) and variety (Dande, Insiza, Kana and S95063) on wheat. In the first season, seed treatment significantly affected final emergence with 84.7 and 78.3% emergence for non-primed and primed seeds respectively. However, in the second season seed treatment had no effect on final emergence. Priming reduced time to 50% emergence by 7 and 14 h in 2005 and 2006 respectively. From the first sowing date to the last, wheat yields were reduced by a mean of 2387 kg ha-1 in both seasons. At the last sowing date, Insiza significantly yielded higher than other varieties in the first season while, seed treatment had no effect on yield in both seasons. It was concluded that wheat planting after 16 May reduced yields. Insiza may optimise yields for late sown wheat while seed priming does not improve yield of late sown wheat.
4.P63 Effects of Sugarcane and Field Beans Intercropping on Sugarcane Growth and Field Bean Yield in Smallholder Sector of Zimbabwe
Madanzi, T., Murare, C. and Muziri, T.
Midlands State University, Department of Agronomy, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Smallholder sugarcane farmers in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe own between 10 and 30 ha of land, of which the crop is grown exclusively under monoculture. Intercropping with early maturing crops such as beans, cabbage and other vegetables in the early stages of sugarcane growth can help increase crop diversity, increase income and help control weeds. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of intercropping sugarcane and field beans on growth and development of the component crops, weed control and yield of beans during the cool season of May to August 2007 at Mkwasine Sugar Estates in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe. The experiment was a randomised complete block design, with five treatments namely, a sole sugarcane crop, sugarcane and field beans at four different plant densities of 133,320, 66,660, 33,330 and 16,665 plants per hectare. The sugarcane crop was in its sixth ratoon. There were significant differences (P<0.001) in weed density due to intercropping with the least weed density being achieved when sugarcane was intercropped with beans at 133 320 plants ha-1, and the highest weed density being achieved in solecrop sugarcane. There were no significant differences (P0>0.5) in relative growth rate of sugarcane and in grain yield of field beans at different intercropping densities. It can be concluded that field beans do not affect growth of sugarcane in the cool season but has ability to reduce weeds and give extra income to the farmer when sold of dry beans.
5.The Impact of Master Farmer Training Scheme on Crop Productivity of Communal Farmers in Gutu District
Henry Pepukai Mika*, Nyaradzai Mudzimiri *Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe Email.: email@example.com
Abstract A study was conducted in Gutu district’s wards 2, 8, 17, 23 and 37 to determine what impact the Master Farmer Training Scheme, a tool in Zimbabwe’s agricultural extension has on productivity and livelihoods of communal farmers. It also sought to explore the relevance of the training method to Zimbabwe’s current agricultural landscape and reasons for low adoption of farming methods learnt during Master Farmer Training. A total of 300 structured questionnaires were distributed in 5 wards selected by simple random sampling. Data collected was on farm management practices, major crop yields, access to and availability of inputs, extension workers’ qualifications and experience and socio-demographic information. The survey revealed that there was a general decrease in maize output between 2005/6 and 2006/7 seasons and there was a statistically significant difference in maize production between the 2006/7 and 2007/8 seasons for both trained and untrained farmers. A yield comparison of three major crops grown in 2007-08 season show no significant differences between the trained and untrained farmers. Out of the 278 farmers 8.73% trained and 4.67% untrained farmers keep records. Planning and budgeting is done by 8.52% and 4.56% of the trained farmers respectively compared to 7.91% and 3.34% of untrained farmers. The differences between trained and untrained were in both cases not statistically significant. 6% of trained farmers have conservation works and practice moisture conservation techniques on their fields. 73% of extension agents are 18-month-certificate holders, whilst 2-year- certificate holders constitute 8% of the workforce. Diploma holders constitute 6% and of the extension workforce in Gutu district only 13% of the extension agents have undergone in-service training to enhance their performance. The study reveals that despite the commitment of time, resources and manpower to the Master Farmer Training, the scheme does not have any impact on crop productivity neither does it change the farming system of individual farmers. There is therefore need to revise the Master Farmer Training policy, principles and objectives with a view to overhaul the whole scheme or conduct a re-alignment exercise in order for it to suit the current agricultural dispensation.
6.A Survey on Strategic Options for the Resuscitation of the National Tobacco Output towards the Assumed Zimbabwe Potential of the Year 2000
Rushizha C., Chivizhe J. B.
Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Abstract Tobacco has been a major contributor to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the Zimbabwe economy, at its peak contributing 12% of GDP (Tobacco Industry and Marketing Board 2004). Its annual output has declined from the year 2000 production of 237 million kilogram to its lowest output of 48, 8 million kilogram of 2008. While the decline has been a national concern and efforts to resuscitate the output show improvement with 2010 production at 123 million kilogram (52%), deliberate strategies need to be put in place to identify and correct the output constraining factors. The study, aimed at addressing yield as one of the established factors known to inherently have a positive correlation of r = 0,8 with output (TIMB 2010). From the four tobacco growing provinces of Zimbabwe, two provinces were purposively selected for the study and quota sampling of twenty respondents per province was done. A structured questionnaire was then administered by the researchers. Using excel, applying Pearson correlation ( r) the study confirmed that yield as the main driver of output had positive correlations to three aspects of: experience of the grower, farmer scale of operation and level of variable costs invested per hectare. As a strategy to resuscitate output towards its national potential (237 million kilogram based on year 2000 bench mark), it is recommended that: tobacco training programmes be put in place, growers be capacitated to increase scale of operation and adequate funding be availed to achieve a level of variable cost adequate for target yields which are capable of achieving set national output.
Key Words: Farmer felt needs, yield per hectare, national tobacco output
1.Annealing and surface conduction on Hydrogen peroxide treated bulk melt-grown, single crystal ZnO
W. Mtangi a, J.M.Nel a, F.D.Auret a, A.Chawanda a, M.Diale a, C.Nyamhere b a-University of Pretoria, Physics Department, Pretoria 0002,South Africa b-Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Physics Department,Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa
We report on the studies carried out on hydrogen peroxide treated melt-grown,bulk single crystal ZnO samples. Results show the existence of two shallow donors in the as-received ZnO samples with energy levels(37.870.3) meV that has been suggested as Zni related and possibly H-complex related and (54.570.9) meV, which has been assigned to anAl-related donor. Annealing studies performed on the hydrogen peroxide treated samples reveal the existence of a conductive channel in the samples in which new energy levels have been observed, Zn vacancies, related to the Group I elements, XZn. The surface donor volume concentration of the conductive channel was calculated from a theory developed by Look (2007) . Results indicate an increase in the surface volume concentration with increasing annealing temperature from 60 1017 cm 3 at 200 1C to4.37 1018 cm-3 at 800 oC.
2.Electrical characterisation of ruthenium Schottky contacts on n-Ge (100)
A Chawanda, C Nyamhere, F. D .Auret , J. M.Nel , W. Mtangi , M Diale a Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa b Department of Physics, Midlands State University, Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe c Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University , , Port Elizabeth 6031,South Africa
Ruthenium (Ru)Schottky contacts were fabricated on n-Ge (100)by electron beam deposition. Current-voltage(I-V), deep level transient spectroscopy(DLTS),and Laplace-DLTS techniques were used to characterise the as-deposited and annealed Ru/n-Ge (100) Schottky contacts. The variation of the electrical properties of the Ru samples annealed between 25 oC and 575 oC indicates the formation of two phases of ruthenium germanide. After Ru Schottky contacts fabrication, an electron trap at 0.38 eV below the conduction band with capture cross section of 1.0 10 14 cm 2 is the only detectable electron trap. The hole traps at 0.09, 0.15, 0.27 and 0.30 eV above the valence bandwith capture cross sections of 7.8 10 13 cm 2, 7.1 10 13 cm 2, 2.4 10 13 cm 2 and 6.2 10 13 cm 2, respectively, were observed in the as-deposited Ru Schottky contacts. The hole trap H(0.30) is the prominent single acceptor level of theE-centre,andH(0.09)is the third charge state of the E-centre. H(0.27)shows some reverse annealing and reaches a maximum concentration at 225 oC and anneals out after350 oC. This trap is strongly believed to be V-Sb2 complex formed from the annealing of V-Sb defect centre.
Keywords: Schottky contacts, Electron beamdeposition, DLTS,L-DLTS, Germanium,Annealing, Ideality factor
3Current-Voltage temperature characteristics of Au/n-Ge(100) Schottky diodes
A, Chawanda a,b,n, W, Mtangi b, F.D. Auret b, J, Nel b, C, Nyamhere c, M, Diale b a Midlands StateUniversity,Bag9055Gweru,Zimbabwe b University ofPretoria,0002Pretoria,SouthAfrica c Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
The variationinelectricalcharacteristicsofAu/n- Ge(100) Schottky contacts have been systematically investigated as a function of temperature using current-voltage(I V) measurements in the temperature range140-300K.The I-V characteristics of the diodes indicate very strong temperature dependence. While the ideality factor n decreases,the zero-bias Schottky barrier height(SBH)(FB) increases with the increasing temperature. The I-V characteristics are analyzed using the thermionic emission (TE) model and thea assumption of a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights due to barrier in homogeneities at the metal-semiconductor interface. The zero-bias barrier height FB vs½ kT plot has been used to show the evidence of a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights and values of FB¼0. 615 eV and standard deviation ss0¼0. 0858 eV for the mean barrier height and zero-bias standard deviation have been obtained from this plot, respectively. The Richards on constant and the mean barrier height from the modified Richards on plot were obtained as 1.37Acm 2 K 2 and 0.639 eV, respectively. This Richards on constant is much smaller than the reported of 50Acm 2 K 2. This may be due to greater in homogeneities at the interface.
4.Effect of thermal treatment on the characteristics of iridium Schottky barrier diodes on n-Ge (1 0 0)
A. Chawandaa,b , S.M.M. Coelhoa, F.D. Aureta, W. Mtangia, C. Nyamherec, J.M. Nela, M. Dialea a Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002, South Africa b Department of Physics, Midlands State University, Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe c Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa
Iridium (Ir) Schottky barrier diodes were deposited on bulk grown (1 0 0) Sb-doped n-type germanium by using the electron beam deposition system. Electrical characterization of these contacts using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements was performed under various annealing conditions. The variation of the electrical properties of these Schottky diodes can be attributed to combined effects of interfacial reaction and phase transformation during the annealing process. Thermal stability of the Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) was observed up to annealing temperature of 500 °C. Furthermore, structural characterization of these samples was performed by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at different annealing temperatures. Results have also revealed that the onset temperature for agglomeration in a 20 nm Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) system occurs between 600 and 700 °C.
5.Thermal annealing behaviour of Pd Schottky contacts on melt-grown single crystal ZnO studied by IV and CV measurements
W. Mtangi , F.D. Aureta, A. Chawandaa, P.J. Janse van Rensburga, S.M.M. Coelhoa, J.M. Nela, M. Dialea, L. van Schalkwyka, C. Nyamhereb a Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa b Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa
Current-voltage (IV) and capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement techniques have successfully been employed to study the effects of annealing highly rectifying Pd/ZnO Schottky contacts. IV results reveal a decrease in the contact quality with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by a decrease in the zero bias barrier height and an increase in the reverse current measured at -1.5 V. An average barrier height of (0.77±0.02) eV has been calculated by assuming pure thermionic emission for the as-deposited material and as (0.56±0.03)eV after annealing at 550°C. The reverse current has been measured as (2.10±0.01) × 10-10A for the as-deposited and increases by 5 orders of magnitude after annealing at 550°C to (1.56±0.01)x10-5A. The depletion layer width measured at 2.0 V has shown a strong dependence on thermal annealing as it decreases from 1.09_m after annealing at 200°C to 0.24_m after annealing at 500°C, resulting in the modification of the dopant concentration within the depletion region and hence the current flowing through the interface from pure thermionic emission to thermionic field emission with the donor concentrations increasing from 6.90x1015 cm-3 at 200 °C to 6.06x1016 cm-3 after annealing at 550 °C. This increase in the volume concentration has been explained as an effect of a conductive channel that shifts closer to the surface after sample annealing. The series resistance has been observed to decrease with increase in annealing temperature. The Pd contacts have shown high stability up to an annealing temperature of 250°C as revealed by the IV and CV characteristics after which the quality of the contacts deteriorates with increase in annealing temperature.
6.A comparative study of the electrical properties of Pd/ZnO Schottky Contacts fabricated using electron beam deposition and resistive/thermal evaporation techniques
W. Mtangi, F. D. Auret, P. J. Janse van Rensburg, S. M. M. Coelho, M. J. Legodi, J. M. Nel, W. E. Meyer, and A. Chawanda -Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, 0028, South
A systematic investigation to check the quality of Pd Schottky contacts deposited on ZnO has been performed on electron beam (e-beam) deposited and resistively/thermally evaporated samples using current-voltage, IV, and conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. Room temperature IV measurements reveal the dominance of pure thermionic emission on the resistively evaporated contacts, while the e-beam deposited contacts show the dominance of generation recombination at low voltages,0.30 V, and the dominance of pure thermionic emission at high voltages, greater than 0.30 V. The resistively evaporated contacts have very low reverse currents of the order of 10_10 A at a reverse voltage of 1.0 V whereas the e-beam deposited contacts have reverse currents of the order of 10_6 A at 1.0 V. Average ideality factors have been determined as (1.4360.01) and (1.6660.02) for the resistively evaporated contacts and e-beam deposited contacts, respectively. The IV barrier heights have been calculated as (0.72160.002) eV and (0.62460.005) eV for the resistively evaporated and e-beam deposited contacts, respectively. Conventional DLTS measurements reveal the presence of three prominent defects in both the resistive and e-beam contacts. Two extra peaks with energy levels of 0.60 and 0.81 eV below the conduction band minimum have been observed in the e-beam deposited contacts. These have been explained as contributing to the generation recombination current that dominates at low voltages and high leakage currents. Based on the reverse current at 1.0 V, the degree of rectification, the dominant current transport mechanism and the observed defects, we conclude that the resistive evaporation technique yields better quality Schottky contacts for use in solar cells and ultraviolet detectors compared to the e-beam deposition technique. The 0.60 eV has been identified as possibly related to the unoccupied level for the doubly charged oxygen vacancy, Vo 2+.
7.Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study of defects introduced in antimonydoped Geby 2 MeV proton irradiation
C. Nyamhere, A.G.M.Dasc, F.D.Auretb, A.Chawanda, C.A.Pineda-Vargasd, A.Venter a Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa b Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa c School of Information Technology, Monash South Africa, Roodepoort 1725, South Africa d iThemba LABS, Somerset West 7129, South Africa e Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, C.P.U.T., P.O.Box1906, Bellville 7535, South Africa
Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS have been used to investigate the defects created in Sb doped Ge after irradiation with 2 MeV proton shaving affluence of 1_1013 protons/cm2. The results show that proton irradiation resulted in primary hole traps at EV þ0.15andEV þ0.30 eV and electron traps at EC _0.38, EC _0.32, EC _0.31, EC _0.22, EC _0.20, EC _0.17, EC _0.15andEC _0.04 eV. Defects observed in this study are compared with those introduced in similar samples after MeV electron irradiation reported earlier. EC _0.31, EC _0.17 and EC _0.04, and EV þ0.15 eVwerenot observed previously in similar samples after high energy irradiation. Results from this study suggest that although similar defects are introduced by electron and proton irradiation, traps introduced by the latter are dose dependent.
8.Determination of the laterally homogeneous barrier height of palladium Schottky barrier diodes on n-Ge(111)
A.Chawanda, K.T.Roroc, F.D.Auret, W.Mtangia, C.Nyamhered, J.Nela, L.Leacha aDepartment of Physics, University of Pretoria,0002, South Africa bDepartment of Physics, Midlands State University, Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe cCSIR-National Laser Centre, Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa dDepartment Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South Africa
We have studied the experiment tall in ear relationship between barrier heights and ideality factors for palladium(Pd)on bulk-grown(111)Sb-dopedn-typegermanium (Ge) metal-semiconductor structures with adoping density of about 2.5_1015 cm_3. The PdSchottky contacts were fabricated by vacuum resistive evaporation. The electrical analysis of the contacts was investigated by means of current–voltage(I–V) and capacitance–voltage(C–V) measurements at a temperature of 296K. The effective barrier heights from I–V characteristics varied from 0.492 to 0.550eV,the ideality factor n varied from 1.140 to 1.950, and from reverse bias capacitance–voltage (C_2–V) characteristics the barrier height varied from 0.427 to 0.509eV. The lateral homogenous barrier height value of 0.558 eV for the contacts was obtained from the linear relationship between experimental barrier heights and ideality factors.Furthermore the experimental barrier height distribution obtained from I–V and (C_2_V) characteristics were fitted by Gaussian distribution function, and their mean values were found to be 0.529 and 0.463eV, respectively.
9.Electrochemical, microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of benzene diamine functionalized single walled carbon nanotube-cobalt (II)tetracarboxy-phthalocyanine conjugates
Mugadza, T. and Nyokong, T Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
In this paper we report on the synthesis and characterization of 1,4-benzene diamine (BDA) functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes linked to cobalt (II) tetracarboxy-phthalocyanine. The characterization of the conjugate was through UV–vis, FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopies and by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electrochemical methods. The conjugate is used for the electrochemical characterization of diuron. The catalytic rate constant for diuron was 4.4 x 103 M-1 s-1 and the apparent electron transfer rate constant was 18.5 x 10-6 cm s-1. The linear dynamic range was 1.0 x 10-5 – 2.0 x 10-4 M, with a sensitivity of ~0.42 A mol-1L cm-2 and a limit of detection of 0.18 µM using the 3δ notation.
10.Synthesis and electrocatalytic behaviour of cobalt (II)-tris(benzyl-mercapto)-monoaminophthalocyanine–single walled carbon nanotube nanorods
Mugadza, T. and Nyokong, T Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
In this paper we report on synthesis and electrocatalytic behavior of cobalt (II)-tris(benzyl-mercapto)- monoaminophthalocyanine–single walled carbon nanotube nanorods towards the oxidation of amitrole. SWCNTs that were terminally functionalized with carboxylic acid groups were chemically linked to cobalt (II)-tris(benzyl-mercapto) monoaminophthalocyanine (CoMAPc) via an amide bond to form nanorods. UV–vis, FTIR, TEM, Raman and XRD spectroscopies were used in characterization of the nanorods (CoMAPc–SWCNT-linked), while cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used during the characterization of amitrole on the modified glassy carbon electrode. The linear dynamic range for the amitrole was from 1.0 × 10−6 M to 1.2 × 10−4 M, with a sensitivity of 6.76 A mol−1 L cm−2. The estimated limit of detection for amitrole was 0.10 µM, using the 3δ criterion. The catalytic rate constant was found to be 1.09 × 105 M−1 s−1.
11.Synthesis, characterization and application of monocarboxy-phthalocyanine-single walled carbon nanotube conjugates in electrocatalysis
Mugadza, T. and Nyokong, T Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
In this paper we report on the synthesis, characterization and use of monocarboxy-phthalocyanine-single walled carbon nanotube conjugates in the electrocatalysis of amitrole and diuron. UV–Vis, FTIR and XRD spectroscopies were used in the characterization of cobalt (II)-tris(benzyl-mercapto)-mono(carboxyphenoxy)-phthalocyanine conjugates (CoMCPc–PA-SWCNT(linked)), while AFM was used to show changes in surface morphologies of the modified electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used for the electrocatalytic oxidation of amitrole and diuron on the modified glassy carbon electrode. The catalytic rate constants for amitrole and diuron were found to be 1.83 x 106 and 1.99 x 106 M-1 s-1, respectively. The linear range for both was 1.0 x 10-5 – 2 .0 x 10-4 M, with sensitivities of 5.10 and 3.70 A mol-1 L cm-2 for amitrole and diuron, respectively. The limits of detection were estimated to be 0.14 and 0.20 µM for amitrole and diuron, respectively, using the 3δ notation.
12.Porphyrin Nanorods Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Electrocatalysis of Dioxygen, Methanol and Hydrazine
Reama C.G., Mugadza, T. Khene, S. Gabriel O. Egharevba, and Nyokong, T. Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Porphyrin nanorods (PNR) were prepared by ionic self-assembly of two oppositely charged porphyrin molecules consisting of free base meso-tetraphenylsulfonate porphyrin ( ) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MTMePy M = Sn, Mn, In, Co). These consist of and porphyrin nanorods. The absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images of these structures were obtained. These porphyrin nanostructures were used to modify glassy carbon electrode for the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen, and the oxidation of hydrazine and methanol at low pH. The cyclic voltammogram of PNR-modified GCE in pH 2 buffer solution has five irreversible processes, two distinct reduction processes and three oxidation processes. The porphyrin nanorods modified GCE produce good responses especially towards oxygen reduction at -0.50 V vs. Ag|AgCl (3M KCl). The process of electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol using PNR-modified GCE begins at 0.71 V vs. Ag|AgCl (3M KCl). The electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine began at around 0.36 V on modified GCE. The GCE modified with and porphyrin nanorods began oxidizing hydrazine at 0.54 V, 0.59 V and 0.56 V, respectively.
13.The effects of carbon nanotubes on the electrocatalysis of hydrogen peroxide by metallo-phthalocyanines
Mashazi P., MugadzaT., Sosibo N., Mdluli P., Vilakazi S., and Nyokong T. Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
The pre-grafted screen-printed gold electrode modified with phenyl-amino monolayer was investigated for covalent immobilization of phenyl-amine functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (PA-SWCNT) and metal tetra-amino phthalocyanine (MTAPc) using Schiff-base reactions with benzene- 1,4-dicarbaldehyde (BDCA) as cross-linker. The PA-SWCNT and MTAPc modified electrodes were applied as hybrids for electrochemical sensing of H2O2. The step-by-step fabrication of the electrode was followed using electrochemistry, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy and all these techniques confirmed the fabrication and the immobilization of PA-SWCNT, MnTAPc and CoTAPc onto gold surfaces. The apparent electron transfer constant (kapp) showed that the carbon nanotubes and metallo-phthalocyanines hybrids possess good electron transfer properties compared to the bare, pre-grafted and the MTAPc modified gold electrode surfaces without PA-SWCNT. The electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide was successful with PA-SWCNT–MTAPc hybrid systems showing higher electrocatalytic currents compared to the other electrodes. The analytical parameters obtained using chronoamperometry gave good linearity at H2O2 concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 30.0 µmol L−1. The values for the limit of detection (LoD) were found to be of the orders of 10−7 M using the 3δ for all the electrodes. The PA-SWCNT–MTAPc modified SPAuEs were much more sensitive compared to PA–MTAPc modified SPAuEs.
14.The Feasibility of Setting up Information Technology-Enabled Services/Business Process Outsourcing Hub in Zimbabwe
Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
The study was aimed at assessing the feasibility of setting an Information Technology Enabled Services /Business Process Outsourcing providing hub in Zimbabwe as the 21st Century is being driven by advancement in trade in services which is making Information Technology a crucial aspect of development. A multiple case study involving countries that have successfully exploited the opportunities provided ITES outsourcing were used. The theoretical framework was developed based on Porter’s national advantage model.
The study revealed that Zimbabwe has a strong human resources base which is both inside and outside the country and has a competitive advantage in terms of strategic location, compares very well with other outsourcing destinations in terms of basic elements for the ITES/BPO outsourcing industry. Zimbabwe has great potential in the areas of web development, application development, call centres, Technical support, Financial Analysis as well as data gathering and analysis. The country should take advantage of its position as one the top ten internet users in Africa for its development as well as growth in its domestic industry and increased economic cooperation through working with regional bodies like Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). The study also recommends the need for public and private partnerships in order to mobilise the resources for the development ITES/BPO industry.
However the government must fully implement its Information and Communication Technology Strategic Plan, in a well coordinated manner to support ICT development and diffusion. On the basis of the findings the study recommended that quasi-governmental organization be set up to coordinate the activities in the ICT sector which includes upgrading infrastructure. The ICT regulatory framework should promote the uptake of ICTs at all levels in the society. Zimbabwe should address issues of universal access, bandwidth, connectivity, affordability of ICTs, and create good corporate governance principles that promote ICT investment.
Key words: Information Technology Enabled Services, Business Process Outsourcing, Information and communication Technologies
Abstract Across sub-saharan Africa water related poverty occurs because farmers lack dependable water resources and capacity to use them. Improvement in agricultural water management offer opportunities in poverty alleviation at farm-level. An integrated framework was developed to identify sets of options as interventions for different farmer profiles in mixed crop-livestock systems. A combination of participatory rural appraisal (PRAs), household survey and gap analysis tools were used in Nkayi district, Zimbabwe to quantify the current crop and livestock production levels. The tools used identified gaps in animal health management, improved feeding, livestock sales and poor crop yields between different farmer wealth profiles in terms of mortalities, poor crop yield, reduced crop and livestock sales, poor feed quality and quantity. Interventions in terms of improved feed sourcing, improved animal health, soil fertility management and access to markets are possible solutions to the challenges faced by the different farmer profiles. If farmers’ different levels and capacities in terms of resources available are taken into consideration, there is a chance to improve the livestock water productivity at farm-level in semi-arid Zimbabwe.
Key words: mortality, interventions, gap analysis, participatory rural appraisal
16.Effects of high temperature annealing on single crystal ZnO and ZnO devices
Mtangi, Wilbert; Auret, F.D. (Francois Danie); Diale, M. (Mmantsae Moche); Meyer, W.E. (Walter Ernst); Chawanda, Albert*; De Meyer, H.; Janse van Rensburg, P.J.; Nel, Jackie M. (Jacqueline Margot) *Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
We have systematically investigated the effects of high-temperature annealing on ZnO and ZnO devices using current voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace DLTS measurements. Current–voltage measurements reveal the decrease in the quality of devices fabricated on the annealed samples, with the high-temperature annealed samples yielding devices with low barrier heights and high reverse currents. DLTS results indicate the presence of three prominent defects in the as-received samples. Annealing the ZnO samples at 300 C, 500 C, and 600 C in Ar results in an increase in reverse leakage current of the Schottky contacts and an introduction of a new broad peak. After 700 C annealing, the broad peak is no longer present, but a new defect with an activation enthalpy of 0.18 eV is observed. Further annealing of the samples in oxygen after Ar annealing causes an increase in intensity of the broad peak. High-resolution Laplace DLTS has been successfully employed to resolve the closely spaced energy levels.